13.8 billion years ago, with the singularity explosion, the universe was born. After the birth of the universe through continuous expansion and evolution, gradually formed stars, planets and countless galaxies. The galaxy is the basic unit of the universe. The Hubble Space Telescope once exposed hundreds of times to a certain direction deep in the universe, and then got a picture of deep space.
Through this picture, we can see that there are countless bright spots deep in the distant sky. These bright spots are actually large galaxies like the Milky way. These large galaxies are composed of hundreds of billions of stellar systems, and stellar systems are the most important components of the universe.
So how do stellar systems form? The so-called stellar system is composed of one or more stars with different numbers of planets. The center of the stellar system is a huge star, in its gravitational influence, there are a number of different planets around it. For example, in the solar system, the center is the sun, and there are eight planets around it.
So how did a star system come into being? According to the current scientific research, scientists believe that the stellar system originated from the early nebula. Let’s take the solar system as an example. About 5 billion years ago, the current position of the solar system was a cluster of solar nebula. Through continuous rotation of the solar nebula, a large amount of material continuously gathered to the center, and then a celestial body was born at the center.
After the birth of this celestial body, relying on its own gravity, it accelerated the absorption and aggregation of the surrounding materials, so its mass became larger and larger. When the mass grows to a certain extent, it will ignite the internal nuclear fusion and evolve from ordinary celestial bodies to stars. So the sun was born. After the birth of the sun, the solar nebula has lost 99.86% of its material, which makes the sun. The rest of the material, under the action of the sun’s gravity, continuously condenses to form various planets and other small bodies.
Through the origin of the solar system, we can come to the conclusion that it is impossible to produce planets or other celestial bodies very close to the sun. The reason is very simple, the matter near the sun has been cleared, and they have condensed into the sun during the formation of the sun. But far away from the sun, there will be some material, which can form planets and asteroids.
Through the position of mercury in the solar system, this conclusion is correct. It is through the study of the solar system that scientists have obtained the theory of planet formation and star formation. So does this idea apply to the whole universe? Will there be any special planets, such as a planet near a star?
Scientists have discovered many exoplanets through the Kepler telescope, such as Kepler 452b, which is very similar to the earth, and many other kinds of planets. The distribution of these planets in orbit is basically consistent with the theory of planet origin and star origin put forward by scientists. They are all at a relatively far position from the main star.
However, the discovery of a planet makes scientists feel incredible. They call it a planet that shouldn’t exist. What’s the matter? It turns out that scientists have observed a hellish planet 400 light-years away from the earth, and they named it Kepler 78B. The reason why we call it hell planet is that its surface temperature is so high that it is almost the same as that of some small stars.
You know, mercury is the closest planet to the sun in the solar system. Although its surface temperature has reached several hundred degrees, it is far from comparable with the surface temperature of stars. Even the smallest kind of yellow dwarfs, their surface temperature is about 3000 degrees. The surface temperature of Kepler 78B, observed by scientists, has reached 3000K, which is more than 2700 degrees Celsius.
The reason why a planet can have such a high temperature is that it is too close to the main star. According to the observation, the distance between the planet and its parent star is only one fortieth of that between mercury and the sun. Such a close distance leads to a very short revolution period, only about 8.5 hours. This is the shortest known orbit of a planet.
Scientists have paid great attention to the appearance of this planet. According to the existing theory of planet formation, it should not appear so close to the parent star. Because in the early stage of this position, there should be no excess material, and it is impossible to form a planet, even an asteroid.
But existence is reasonable. Now that this impossible planet has appeared, does it mean that the existing planetary theory of human beings is not completely correct? You may wonder if the planet formed from a place far away from the star, and then it was pulled closer by the star’s gravity by chance? Some scientists have also thought of this possibility.
However, through a series of analysis and simulation, this possibility was finally denied. If it formed a planet in the distance and then was pulled to this distance, it could not continue to revolve around the parent star in this way, but should directly fall into the star at a farther place.
We should know that in the stellar system, the mass of the star accounts for more than 90% of the mass of the whole galaxy, and its gravity is very strong. How far away planets leave their orbits and rush to the star, the result of high probability is that they directly fall into the star instead of reaching the very close position of the star, forming a stable orbit for revolution.
It can run very close to the star, indicating that it probably formed near the star, so that it can have a stable orbit in the process of formation. It also shows that the star around this planet is very young, and its birth time is not long. Although Kepler 78B has become a very rare special planet in the universe, its future fate is very bad.
So close to the parent star, the surface temperature has reached more than 2700 degrees Celsius, so high temperature will continue to evaporate planetary material, and it will disappear completely in the near future. Although it is lucky to be a planet, it is only a flash in the pan. Through the discovery of Kepler 78B, we also put forward some doubts about the existing theory of planetary origin. It’s possible that we don’t know enough about the formation of stellar systems. This important discovery will help us to make it better.
Guys, how do you think Kepler 78B came into being? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.