What happens when human brain genes are implanted into animals? The experiment had been done, but it had to stop halfway

This paper takes part in the series of essay competition of Recordunkown science greatness.

Human brain structure is complex, it can not only direct what we do next second, but also make us produce all kinds of emotions. Our brain is like a very complex “highway”. There are many kinds of intersections in this highway, and each intersection is closely connected. It is also very difficult for scientists to thoroughly understand how we use our brain to think and generate emotions. Perhaps the brain is the most complex thing in the known universe.

Taking memory as an example, human beings can remember something, or something, mainly through two ways, one is the number of repetitions, and the other is to associate a thing with a known memory. For example, when we remember someone, we will identify it by his appearance and voice, even if the person does not appear directly in front of us, but through his memory Voice, we can also identify this is someone, this is the super strong human brain.

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What is the origin of human brain? The ancestors of human beings are primates, so the human brain also evolved from primates. Different from primates, there are tens of billions of neurons in human brain. The evolution of the brain provides a structural guarantee for the production of human language, and the rich language strengthens the communication between human beings. But the reason why humans are different from other primates is that the human brain has evolved a complex structure. What will happen if the gene of human brain is implanted into animals?

The experiment of implanting human brain gene into animals challenges ethics

Once saw such a question in the network: “can people and animals have love?” Many people’s answer is yes, this group is called “animal lover”. In life, many people like to keep a dog. No matter what they do, they like to take the dog with them. They even sleep in the same bed with the dog. They have special feelings for the dog and even regard it as their lover. However, this kind of behavior is against the law of nature in the eyes of most people.

People have deep feelings with animals, and the human brain is very advanced. Therefore, some netizens can’t help asking, “is it possible to implant human brain genes into animals? And become a combination of human and animal? ” The answer is yes!

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1、

Inserting human brain genes into mice

At the Sok Institute of biology in San Diego, researchers extracted the human brain gene (FOXP2 gene, which is related to language ability and speech ability) and cultured it in vitro to form a kind of “brain like organ”. Scientific researchers called these “brain like organs” mini human brain. Then they implanted all these Mini human brains into the heads of nearly 100 mice A lot of people will be creepy in the future. Isn’t this kind of experiment going to expand the variety of mice? During the experiment, in order to observe the changes of human brain genes in mice, researchers specially added some special proteins (green fluorescence), all of which can be observed by researchers.

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The picture shows FOXP2 gene

What shocked the researchers was that the human brain gene actually “survived” and grew smoothly in mice. We all know that in the past, mice lived a long life, and could live for about 2-3 years. With the injection of human brain gene, these mice were very active, with a survival rate of 90%, and the average survival time of each mouse was more than 100 days.

For these experiments, in the eyes of scientific researchers, they think it is not against common sense. In their consciousness, it belongs to healthy integration. Human brain genes have found a new host. Moreover, in mice, human brain genes can simply “communicate” with the new host. Through this experiment, scientific researchers can further study the problem of human brain dysfunction Such as Alzheimer’s disease, nerve migraine and so on, we should find the best treatment path for these difficult medical problems.

A netizen said: “mice are the natural enemies of human beings. If we transplant human brain genes into mice, wouldn’t it be the end of our world if the mice become bigger and smarter? When the time comes, it will be unthinkable to trigger another war between man and mouse. “

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“Mice are all kinds of harm but no benefit. This kind of shrewd animal can obtain the advanced brain gene of human again. This kind of experiment is really very bold. It goes against the natural ethics. Stop it now!”

Although the prospect of experimental research in this field is very good, researchers have to face a lot of questions, such as “violating the ethics of human brain cells” and “once the super ability mice are cultivated, will they pose a threat to human beings?” Although this experiment has initially helped researchers to make great progress, the problem of whether the experiment can continue remains to be solved. However, from the current point of view, researchers can not control what kind of results this experiment can produce.

2、

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Will the primates, the ancestors of human beings, be smarter by transplanting human brain genes into them?

In the animal world, primates are particularly smart. They are the ancestors of human beings. A netizen posted a post asking, “if we transplant human brain genes into primates, will they become very smart and their IQ will also be improved?”

At present, this idea is not just an idea. According to a paper published in science, relevant experiments have been carried out on this idea, and effective conclusions have been obtained. This is an experiment jointly carried out by German and Japanese scientists to implant the unique human arhgap11b gene into marmosets.

What is arhgap11b gene?

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It’s going to start with the human brain structure.

In terms of function, different from other creatures, we humans have advanced cognitive abilities such as language, thinking and reasoning. According to relevant studies, this function is mainly controlled by the surface fold cortex of our human brain, that is, the surface fold cortex of our human brain determines our way of thinking.

In our human genome, arhgap11b gene controls this unique structure. According to the research of relevant scientists, arhgap11b gene was originally arhgap11a gene. When a gene mutation occurred in the process of evolution, a pair of bases of arhgap11a gene changed. From then on, arhgap11b gene, which specially controls the cerebral surface fold cortex, appeared. This is also the most important change in our evolutionary path.

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So scientists implanted the gene sequence into marmoset embryos. In the experiment, we found that during the development of marmoset embryos, folds on the brain surface increased significantly, similar to human changes, but this change is not limited to this. The scientists also scanned the brain of marmoset embryos in detail. It has been proved that the number of glial cells and neurons of marmoset embryos increased significantly on the basis of the increase of folds on the brain surface. It is obvious that arhgap11b gene plays the same role in marmoset as in human.

Do marmosets have human intelligence after birth?

Although Xiaobian is also very curious about this, the experiment has to be stopped after 102 days of embryonic development and scientists have obtained the experimental data. When the experiment stopped, marmosets’ embryos are still growing to the fetal stage. After all, while we are curious about marmosets’ appearance after birth, some people also question whether the experiment is an ethical experiment: whether marmosets should have human big brains Brain?

Human beings originated from primates. If the purpose of the experiment is to help human beings study brain diseases and provide effective clues for treatment, will the improvement of monkey’s intelligence finally pose a threat to human beings? If there is no threat, can monkeys with improved IQ be standardized? This experimental study still makes many people feel fear, once the monkey involved in human genes, the consequences are really unimaginable.

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Any scientific experimental research that violates ethics is not successful. We must reach the loss and stop loss!

It is no exaggeration to say that any scientific experiment is not successful as long as it violates natural ethics. Although this kind of experiment against natural ethics will give researchers valuable clues in the short term, in the long run, this kind of experiment will bring a series of serious consequences, such as being denounced by professional institutions, and catastrophic consequences will make you the biggest sinner in human history. If you don’t do this kind of experiment, maybe you can also benefit a lot.

Looking through the annals of human history, in the 1940s, the U.S. government secretly carried out research on the impact of radiation on human beings on patients, soldiers and pregnant women; in the 1980s, some researchers carried out hepatitis experiments on mentally retarded children. They deliberately infected children and observed the development and change of liver disease virus Tens of thousands of experiments against ethics show that these operators lose their identity as scientists and touch the bottom line of moral principles. Although they made great achievements in the experiment in a short time, they violated their professional ethics. No matter what kind of experiment can’t be done on the premise of harming people, let alone injecting human cells or genes into animals. This kind of experiment across groups and races is not successful, and scientists should lose and stop.

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The picture shows Unit 731

“If the human gene is implanted into the animal, the animal’s IQ will surpass that of human in a short period of time, isn’t it like” Busan trip “in South Korea, in which human becomes a walking corpse, and the animals are anti super human. This kind of experiment is so terrible, it’s like a sci-fi blockbuster. Let’s stop it as soon as possible!”

“We don’t object to scientists constantly exploring and researching experiments for the sake of the medical field, but scientists must be responsible for the consequences of experiments, and they can master and control the results of experiments. Take the injection of human brain genes into mice as an example. Although the purpose of the scientists’ experiment is good, in order to find the best way to treat Alzheimer’s disease and neuromigraine, if in the process of the experiment, the mice’s genes become stronger, their intelligence quotient becomes smarter, and even their life expectancy becomes longer, this kind of disastrous and devastating consequence is unexpected Scientists, hurry up and stop

“Experiments that violate ethics should be punished by law. This kind of experiment can be called Devil’s experiment, just like hybridization between human and animal. This kind of experiment makes everyone surprised. Scientific researchers participating in the experiment should be punished by law. After all, human and animal can’t do such things that violate ethics.”

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The picture shows the triplet experiment

Generally speaking, netizens think that it is not wise to transplant human brain genes into animals. It may be a new turning point for us to stop the experiment in time. In case these animals become very powerful and become our “Nemesis”, the third world war between human and animals will be triggered again. At that time, human beings will really be throwing stones at us My own feet.

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