This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown
In this ancient planet, we humans are the top masters of the whole food chain. With the continuous progress of science and technology, many mysteries in the unknown areas of the world have been gradually opened by scientists. The world is more complex than we think, and some mysteries are waiting for scientists to solve. For example, in the interior of the United States, there are many spiral shaped rocks. Geologists call these rocks “devil’s spiral”. Why do these rocks have such a shape? What’s the secret behind it?
In the interior of the United States, more than three meters high rocks are hidden underground, which are considered to be the remains of freshwater sponge
The United States is characterized by vast plains. Nebraska belongs to the Midwest of the United States, with boundless plains. When it comes to Nebraska, we can’t help but think of the story of Mr. Strutt. In this movie, we appreciate the local conditions and customs of Nebraska. The Indians who have lived here for a long time have been excluded by the white people. In order to commemorate the fact that the Soviet Indians have lived in this thick soil, they named it Su County. Due to frequent exclusion and discrimination, the Indians were soon driven out by the white people, who occupied the land and developed agriculture and animal husbandry for a long time.
At the end of the 18th century, a farmer, in order to expand his farm, accidentally found many strange stones in the process of reclamation. After digging in depth, the ranchers couldn’t bear to look directly at it and dug out a spiral stone more than three meters high. When the local government knew about this, it also attached great importance to it, and specially sent a senior geologist and paleontologist Bob to explore.
“What is the spiral stone more than three meters high?” After seeing these strange stones in front of his eyes, the senior expert barber’s first reflection is whether these spiral stones are the remains of ancient creatures? Because the organic matter in the remains of many ancient creatures will be decomposed over time, and the hard parts of the body, such as shells, bones, branches and leaves, together with the surrounding sediments, will be petrified into stones, but some external structures or forms will still be preserved. In order to confirm this statement, the senior expert barber consulted a lot of literature, but there was no detailed similar record. Due to the symmetry of these spiral shaped strange stones, the researcher finally named them “devil’s spiral, devil’s bottle opener”.
Nebraska discovered the “devil’s spiral”. The news spread widely in Nebraska and soon spread to all corners of the United States. Because of its special name, it attracted the attention of many scientists. What is the devil’s spiral? Why is it so named? In order to help you answer questions, barber also specially published on the causes of the “devil’s spiral”. It turns out that the reason why he named it this way is that this spiral rock is a remnant of prehistoric giant freshwater sponge.
The devil’s spiral is the most ancient “screw”. Is it a plant or an animal? Three generations of scientists have studied for 86 years
I didn’t expect that this strange rock made three generations of scientists painstakingly study it for 86 years. Barber first called this spiral rock “the devil’s spiral”. Its external structure is like the rhizome of some kind of plant, which is constantly whirling around. When the plant decays, it is wrapped in minerals and finally becomes a fossil.
Although barber’s explanation can be understood and accepted by many people, in 1893, another paleontologist in the United States, Derek, put forward a different point of view. In his view, this spiral rock should not be a plant, but a cave dug by some large animals. The reason why it is spiral is that these animals gnaw with their teeth (a way of grinding teeth), which is the reason why paleontology is so complicated The idea put forward by the scientist delink was also accepted by another paleontologist of the Austro Hungarian Empire. And he further confirmed that the animal that dug this special cave was the extinct ancient beaver.
How the “devil’s spiral” came into being has always been divided into two schools in the scientific research field. The “plant school” represented by barber paleontologists and the “animal school” represented by Derringer have been arguing with each other. For many years, they have been looking for more powerful evidence for their own views. However, after nearly 70 years of stalemate, the “devil’s spiral” still has no exact answer.
Why did the beaver dig this “spiral” mouse hole and build a luxury house?
Until the mid-1970s, Martin, a famous paleontologist in the United States, led his team to conduct in-depth research on the “devil spiral” from various angles. Martin analyzed the geographical structure and concluded that the sediment of stratum particles in the spiral cave could only be formed under the action of wind force under drought conditions. The caves are as strong as plaster, and there are many animal tooth marks in these spiral rock layers, which overturns the previous Babel School of “plants”.
In the animal world, beavers with thick hair enjoy the reputation of “architect”. They have always been famous for their excellent architectural skills. In the animal world, they are also “hydraulic engineers”. They are mainly distributed in Eurasia and North America, and often inhabit near streams, ponds and lakes, so beavers are born with the habit of damming waterways. The leaves, buds and bark of trees are the staple food. Beaver’s teeth are very sharp. It’s a real rodent.
The picture shows an ancient beaver
In addition to beavers, mice and squirrels that we see everyday are all rodents. This animal has one of the biggest commonalities, that is, it often needs to gnaw on some hard things to grind teeth, so as to prevent the teeth from being too long to affect eating. According to the characteristics of beavers, paleontologist Martin deduced that digging this “spiral” mouse hole was built by ancient beavers. To this end, some netizens questioned: “the same are rodents, why is not a mouse hole, but the ancient beaver?”
The biggest difference with mice is that the teeth (incisors) of ancient beavers grow infinitely. Only constant and frequent gnawing can prevent the growth of these teeth. However, the teeth of mice are not as powerful as those of ancient beavers. This kind of spiral solid rock is the most outstanding work of ancient beavers. Their incisors are like saws used in our daily life, about 30 cm long The big trees of the ancient beavers can be touched by them one after another, which shows how powerful the front teeth of the ancient beavers are.
How did the beaver burrow? How is this spiral structure formed?
The ancient beaver burrows from top to bottom. In the process of burrowing, the hind legs of the ancient beaver play a supporting role. The body is taken as the radius to dig downward in a spiral shape. This way of burrowing is very solid, like a fortress built. The cave space is very large, like a villa, which can defend and avoid foreign enemies. If the water level of the rat’s cave rises when the flood comes, the ancient beavers will make holes on the top of the cave, which is also the “ceiling” of their own home. This way of making holes is like the attic of our present high-rise belt.
So what was the role of this “devil spiral” passage in the ancient beaver mouse cave? One of the most important advantages is to avoid foreign enemies. Even if there are foreign enemies entering the cave, once they are confused by this spiral channel, they will soon be dizzy, unable to find the real bottom hole and lose their sense of direction. Secondly, the spiral channel can adjust the temperature in the cave, playing a role of warm in winter and cool in summer. It is like an air conditioner, which can increase the temperature and reduce the humidity of the cave anytime and anywhere. When ancient beavers want to excrete, they will easily drill out from the channel slope to excrete outside, playing the role of “cleaning garbage”.
When building their own “villas”, the beavers would make full use of the trees they had chewed down before. For example, they would use the thicker branches as the base, while the thinner branches were used to support them. They would spread thick leaves on the base, which was like a bed, which was perfectly built. Ancient beavers are also very principled in their work. They will not eat up all the trees, but will leave some very small saplings for them to develop into towering trees in the future.
2. The old beaver’s mouse hole is full of plant fiber, which is directly related to the terrain and environment
Paleontologists have found that there are a lot of plant fibers in the cave of the ancient beaver. Is it the food material stored by the ancient beaver? Not really. The cave passage of the ancient beaver mouse is a spiral structure, and long-term ventilation can not store food at all. After the extinction of the ancient beaver, its cave has been abandoned, and the whole cave environment is humid. This special geographical environment is very suitable for plant generation. Through the in-depth study of paleontologists, it is finally revealed why there are a lot of plant fibers in the mouse cave.
The old beavers also have a special way of storing food. They will nibble off the branches in advance when winter comes, and then drag them to their own hole. In winter, the old beavers will find some ice cubes, which are their “refrigerator”. They will cover the branches they have stored before. This way not only saves the freshness of the branches, but also facilitates storage, You can wait until the next spring when the ice and snow melt.
We don’t know how the beaver went extinct in the end, but at present, the mystery of “the devil’s spiral” has been thoroughly revealed by paleontologists. It can be seen that scientists like to solve problems and dare to take risks. They explore nature endlessly, not only in their own fields, but also in other fields. In order to explore the mystery of the world, in order to pursue the truth, scientists have been working hard, they show us the wonders of nature with persistent spirit.