230 million years ago, the earth ushered in a continuous 2 million years of heavy rain, which may be paid attention to in the future

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

The earth is an excellent ecological earth. It is precisely because of the excellent ecosystem that life and human beings are born. Therefore, the stability of ecosystem is very important for human ecology and development.


It is only about 5000 years since mankind entered the age of civilization. During this period, the earth’s ecology has not changed much, and it has always been more appropriate. However, all these changes have taken place in the industrial age.

The industrial age has put mankind on the road of science and technology. I believe we all know that the power of science and technology not only makes people’s quality of life higher and higher, but also enables us to go out of the earth and explore the universe. It can be said that human beings can’t do without science and technology now. Although science and technology has brought us many benefits, everything has two sides. If there are advantages, there will be disadvantages.

The rapid development of science and technology has also brought a crisis to the survival of mankind. This crisis is the emission of a large number of industrial waste gas, especially the emission of carbon dioxide. According to the research, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the earth’s atmosphere is 42.8% higher than that before the industrial age, which is a very huge increase, and this data is still rising over time.


The continuous increase of carbon dioxide concentration will bring about the greenhouse effect and make the earth’s temperature rise continuously. At present, the global average temperature has increased by 1 ℃ compared with that of industrialization. Some people may say that the massive emission of carbon dioxide is nothing more than making the earth’s temperature higher and higher, and it will not have any other impact on the earth’s ecology. Is that really the case?

If you think so simply, it’s a big mistake. We can’t bear the consequences of the increasingly serious greenhouse effect, which happened once 230 million years ago. In the process of studying the geological evolution, scientists found that 230 million years ago, the earth ushered in a heavy rain lasting for 2 million years.


Rainfall is a common and normal natural phenomenon on earth, which can maintain and purify the ecological environment of the earth. But if the rainfall climate lasts for a very long time, it will also bring terrible ecological disaster, which will evolve into a mass extinction event.

230 million years is the age of the earth’s biological explosion, which is in the early Late Triassic, 20 million years after the third mass extinction. If we follow the normal life evolution, there may be no dinosaur thing later. But nature is so difficult for people to ponder, no one would have thought that a catastrophe is quietly approaching.

I believe my friends can imagine how serious the consequences of the continuous rainfall of 2 million years will be. It can be said that the earth’s ecology will be completely reversed. It’s true that 96% of the species are extinct after 2 million years of heavy rain. It took millions of years for the new ecosystem to recover, and it was also this long rain disaster that made dinosaurs rise rapidly and began to dominate the earth.


So how did this 2 million year long rainfall happen? In fact, its occurrence is closely related to the massive emission of carbon dioxide. Of course, 230 million years ago, human beings were not born, and there was no other intelligent life. How did a lot of carbon dioxide emissions come from? It was mainly caused by large-scale volcanic eruption.

Before the Carnian, there was a large-scale volcanic eruption in langlia, western North America, which lasted for millions of years. Such a long volcanic eruption, resulting in a large number of carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere, bringing more and more serious greenhouse effect.


At the beginning, the greenhouse effect brought only the rising temperature of the earth, but with the passage of time, the carbon dioxide content is higher and higher, and the greenhouse effect is more and more serious. Finally one day, it broke through a critical point and brought about drastic changes in the ecology. As we all know, in the Carnian period 230 million years ago, there were not six continents on earth, but only one, which we called Pangea.

Pangea is a whole piece of land, and later it split into six plates. Such a huge land made it difficult for the water vapor in the ocean to penetrate into the center of the land, so most of the land climate at that time was dry and hot with little rain except for the coastal areas.

This kind of climate, coupled with the continuous upgrading of the greenhouse effect, finally led to ecological upheaval and brought an unprecedented heavy rain, which we call the Carnian flood event. So how did this long rain evolve? In fact, the answer is not complicated, because the earth’s temperature is rising, the water in the ocean also began to evaporate into the atmosphere.


In this way, more and more water vapor in the atmosphere, with the movement, they reach the center of the continent, to every corner of the continent. We can imagine that a large amount of water in the ocean turns into steam and is stored in the atmosphere. Once the temperature of the atmosphere drops, the water will fall down. What kind of terrible scene will it be.

With the rising of the earth’s temperature, more and more ocean water evaporates into the atmosphere. When these water vapor gather in the atmosphere to a certain extent, quantitative change will cause qualitative change, and then heavy rain will come. Rainfall will make the temperature of the atmosphere drop, so it causes a chain effect, and the water vapor in the atmosphere continuously falls to the ground in the form of rainfall.


In the process of rainfall, the eruption of volcanoes is still not stopped, and carbon dioxide continues to be emitted into the atmosphere. The temperature above the ocean is still maintained at a very high level, and the water in the ocean continues to evaporate into water vapor. In this way, the ocean side continuously evaporates and feeds water vapor into the atmosphere, while the water vapor in the atmosphere continuously drops on the land, which lasts for 2 million years.

This is the origin of the pluvial events in the Kani period. Of course, in this period of 2 million years, it does not rain every day, and there is a time for rain to rest. It’s just that most of the time it rains, which keeps dry land moist for two million years.

We can imagine that Pangea was originally a dry land with little rain, and the living creatures on this land had already adapted to this arid climate, and nature made these terrestrial creatures focus on adapting to the dry land in the direction of evolution. However, with the arrival of the rainfall lasting for 2 million years, the dry continent has become a wet continent, and a large number of organisms are difficult to adapt to this climate, so the new mass extinction began.


After the baptism of the Carnian proluvial event, a large number of niches were vacant. At this time, dinosaurs adapted to this climate, began to rise, and opened a prosperous era of 160 million. The long rain also made early mammals appear. Unfortunately, it was the age of dinosaurs. Mammals were too weak to hide and wait for another time.

At this time, it would be 160 million years until the asteroid hit the Earth 65 million years ago, which caused ecological upheaval again. Dinosaurs could not adapt to the environment of upheaval. A large number of dinosaurs disappeared and the age of dinosaurs ended. In this dramatic change, mammals adapted to the new ecological environment and began to rise, replacing dinosaurs as the new overlord of the earth.


After reading these, I believe my friends also understand that it is a large amount of carbon dioxide emissions that eventually led to 2 million years of rainfall. Now the human industry has also brought a lot of continuous carbon dioxide emissions. If such emissions continue to be uncontrolled, as time goes on, once the atmospheric carbon dioxide content also reaches the level of 230 million years, a new round of long rain may also be staged.

If the earth’s future rainfall lasts for tens of thousands of years, then the earth’s ecological niche will be shuffled, and a large number of species will be extinct. Although human beings are intelligent and have the power of science and technology, it is still unknown whether we can survive in the face of such natural disasters unless we have the ability to migrate to other planets.

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