In this paper, I participated in the series of solicitations of the great astronomy and Astronautics of Recordunkown science
The universe is vast, with numerous kinds of celestial bodies, among which stars and planets are the main stream. Stars have an extraordinary position in the universe. They bring some light and warmth to the dark and cold universe. At the same time, stars are also excellent order managers. Relying on their own mass, they attract nearby planets and other celestial bodies to run around them and form small galaxies.
Stars are the managers of order, but also an important element of the birth of life. Without stars, there will be no birth of life on earth, no birth of human beings. I believe that the same is true of other intelligent life in the universe, which can only be born by relying on stars. Stars provide sunlight and suitable temperature for the planets in the habitable zone, so that the planet can have the conditions for the birth of life. Otherwise, even if the planet is full of various organic materials, it is difficult to give birth to life without stars, let alone intelligent life.
We look up at the starry sky every day and see the stars in the sky. Most of them are stars. In our traditional understanding, these stars are motionless. When we were young, we thought that the sun was motionless. But in fact, not only planets but also stars are moving in the universe, and some stars are moving far faster than planets. Maybe many people have heard of wandering planets. Some planets in the universe will become wandering planets after being thrown out of the galaxy.
But in the universe, there are also wandering stars, stars can also wander, of course, stars want to wander, it must have super fast speed, otherwise it is difficult to get rid of the gravitational shackles of the black hole in the center of the galaxy. The Milky way is a galaxy with a diameter of 100000 light-years, with hundreds of billions of stars. Most of the stars are able to move around the silver center with limited speed. However, some stars can even travel thousands of kilometers per second. These stars are called “super fast stars”.
However, there will still be a very small number of stars who are unwilling to be bound and will get extremely high speed by chance, so as to get rid of the shackles of the silver center and become wandering stars. Finally, they may leave the Milky way. The normal rotation speed of stars in the galaxy is limited. For example, the rotation speed of the sun is 250 kilometers per second, which is a relatively normal rotation speed of stars.
Some time ago, astronomers discovered that a star named s5-hvs1 is moving away from the center of the galaxy at a speed of 1700 kilometers per second, which is the fastest main sequence star found so far. A previous study showed that hypervelocity stars are very rare, and most of them are O-type and B-type stars. Their temperature is very high, in tens of millions of years will run out of all the internal fuel, become a high-speed “dead” star or neutron star. What puzzles scientists is that s5-hvs1 is quite different from ordinary hypervelocity stars. It is a type a star with a mass of about 2.35 times that of the sun. It is only 500 million years old, and hydrogen fusion is still going on inside. It can be called a “living” star.
The mass is about 2.35 times that of the sun, which means that although the life of this star can not reach about 10 billion years of the sun, there is no problem to reach the life of billions of years. Now it is only 500 million years old, it has become a super fast star and started its wandering journey. Therefore, there is no accident for such a star, and it is likely to leave the galaxy in the future.
In 2006, scientists observed a “dead” star code named Rx j0822-4300 with a speed of more than 1500 kilometers per second, while the fastest main sequence star previously discovered was US 708 with a speed of 1200 kilometers per second – far less than that of s5-hvs1. And this Hengde star is about 29000 light-years away from the earth, which is basically in the center of the galaxy, where there is the largest supermassive black hole in the galaxy.
As we all know, due to the existence of supermassive black holes in the center of the galaxy, it is a very busy place where stars gather in the galaxy. The number of stars is very large, which is basically pulled by the gravity of supermassive black holes. S5-hvs1 should be near the center of the galaxy, so how did it get such a high speed?
Theoretical studies show that stars can only reach such a high speed through the supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy. This is the gravitational catapult effect proposed by modern science, which uses the gravity of massive celestial bodies to accelerate the target. When we launch spacecraft to the edge of the solar system, we have to go through the gravitational acceleration of Jupiter. The supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy has a very strong gravitational force.
But the gravity at the center of the silver is so strong, how can s5-hvs1 be ejected to get super high speed? Under normal circumstances, it will only be torn apart by the gravity of the black hole and eventually fall into the black hole. It was kicked out of the center of the galaxy about 4.8 million years ago according to its moving speed and orbit, but there is no reasonable scientific explanation for the specific mechanism.
Some researchers believe that s5-hvs1 may come from a binary star system. When it moves near the supermassive black hole, a star is swallowed by the black hole. If at this time, the star, due to its large mass, just came to the end of its life and was about to explode, the gravitational pull of the black hole just caused a big explosion, so s5-hvs1 was ejected out. At this time, by coincidence, it was accelerated by the gravitational superposition of the black hole, so it obtained a super-high speed of 1700km / s, and was free from the world No longer bound by the gravity of silver.
Scientists say that due to the super high speed of s5-hvs1, it will inevitably escape from the galaxy one day in the future. In order to track the trajectory of this strange star, scientists hope that the new “map” of the galaxy released by the European Space Agency Gaia satellite in 2021 will provide more data.
Of course, s5-hvs1 is not the only wandering star in the galaxy. At present, scientists have found five wandering stars, all of which are speeding up their escape from the galaxy. According to the conjecture of scientists, these stars may be born in a star system with more than two stars. Because one of the massive stars is ejected by a supernova explosion, it can get rid of the gravitational shackles of the silver center.
Although there are five stars in the Milky way that are speeding up their escape from the Milky way, there are more stars escaping into the Milky way from outside the Milky way. At present, seven stars have been observed. They are separated from other galaxies and will enter the Milky way one day. The stars escaping from the Milky way are likely to enter other galaxies one day. The prerequisite, of course, is that their lives do not end before they enter other galaxies.
The space between galaxies in the universe can be called interstellar space. It is a free and unrestrained place. Most of the space in the universe is this kind of interstellar space. It’s dark, there are few celestial bodies, and the occasional light may be that stars fleeing the galaxy are wandering rapidly. The universe is so mysterious and fascinating.
Unfortunately, with the current technology of human beings, we can’t get out of the solar system, let alone cross the Milky way, or even explore the interstellar space beyond the Milky way. However, the development speed of human approach is very fast. I believe that as long as we have enough future for human beings, there will be no problem in the future of crossing the galaxy or even the universe. We are looking forward to this day.
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