There are countless stars in the vast universe, and each star is surrounded by a number of planets, forming a star system. Scientists speculate that there may be more than 100 billion stars in the galaxy with a diameter of 100000 light-years, and the number of stellar systems may naturally be more than 100 billion.
Stars and planets form a stable star system, and countless star systems form the universe. So how does a complete star system form? At present, the accepted theory of planet formation, namely the core accretion model, holds that stars are formed by collapsing gas and dust clouds, and the remaining gas and dust clouds form protoplanetary disks around the stars, from which planets are born.
That is to say, the size of stars and planets has a direct relationship with the amount of matter in the protostar cloud, how much nebular matter can form stars and later planets, and the larger the mass of the star, the more gas and dust it used to be in the region. Only enough dust and gas can form more massive stars and planets.
According to the current observation data, scientists found that red dwarfs are the most common type of stars in the universe, accounting for more than 70% of the total number of stars. These stars are small and cold, with a mass usually only one-fifth that of the sun, and a brightness only one-fifth that of the sun. For low mass red dwarfs, the mass of the planets around them should be small. Generally, they can only form asteroids like earth or Neptune.
However, scientists found a planet with a very large mass near a red dwarf star through an astronomical telescope, which surprised scientists. This is a planet that should not exist. What’s the matter?
The red dwarf star is about 31 light-years away from the earth. Its mass is 1 / 8 of the sun’s, its diameter is 1 / 7 of the sun’s, and its brightness is less than 1 / 100 of the sun’s. Originally, such a low mass red dwarf star would not arouse much interest of scientists, but later scientists found a huge gas giant planet near the red dwarf star, and the discovery of this planet surprised scientists.
The planet, code named GJ 3512b, is found near the red dwarf star. Its mass is almost half that of Jupiter. It is 1 / 3 astronomical unit away from its parent star (the average distance between the earth and the sun is about 150 million kilometers), and it has been around for about seven months. Through the revolution period, we can see that the giant planet is still very close to the main star.
The reason why scientists say that this planet should not exist is that according to the existing theory of planet formation, due to the lack of dust, gas and other materials near the red dwarf star, it can only form planets as big as the earth at most, and is unlikely to form larger gas giant planets.
For a gas giant planet, first the dust particles form a cold rock core with a mass of 10 to 15 times that of the earth, then they begin to accumulate hydrogen and helium, the two most abundant elements in the universe, and finally grow into a “gas giant”. The formation of gas giant planets requires more dust, gas and other materials. Such a difference can only be made near stars with greater mass than red dwarfs, which has been confirmed by a large number of exoplanet observations.
But now, scientists have observed and found a gas giant planet near the red dwarf star, which makes scientists very puzzled. Is our current theory of planet formation incorrect? And the existence is reasonable. Since there are huge gas planets near the red dwarf, it shows that its appearance must have its scientific reason.
So how did the planets that shouldn’t exist come into being? Some researchers believe that the formation of GJ 3512b may be related to the protoplanetary disk instability model. The model assumes that the unstable protoplanetary disk may split into gas and dust masses, and then collapse directly under its own gravity to form gas giant planets.
Of course, there are many loopholes in the above explanation, which can not perfectly solve the mystery of the formation of this gas giant planet. Maybe there are other reasons for its formation. Some people think that this huge gaseous planet will be an alien object? If in the early stage of the formation of the red dwarf, a wandering gas planet accidentally came near the red dwarf, and then was attracted by its gravity, and finally became an orbiting planet.
If it’s an alien planet, it’s normal to be bigger. You know, although the red dwarf is not as good as the sun, its mass and gravity are not comparable to those of planets. Even the giant gas giant, once attracted by the red dwarf’s gravity, can only be obedient.
If we want to reveal the secret between the red dwarf and the giant planet near it, we need more observation and analysis. Maybe in the future, we will have more advanced observation equipment to get more relevant data, so as to reveal the secret behind them. If the giant planet is really formed in the original red dwarf galaxy, the existing theory of planet formation may be overturned.
In fact, the mystery of planetary formation in the solar system is not so simple. There are more unsolved mysteries than that of the red dwarf galaxy. For example, according to the normal theory of planet formation, giant planets should be born near stars, which has been seen from the observation of the red dwarf galaxy and other galaxies.
In other galaxies in the universe, the giant planets are basically near the stars, and the planets far away from the stars are relatively small. This is a very normal theory of planet formation, because the density of dust and other matter near the star is higher, and the easier it is to form larger planets.
However, the distribution of celestial bodies in the solar system breaks this rule. We all know that the two giant gas planets in the solar system, Jupiter and Saturn, are far away from the sun. Why are they not near the sun? This makes scientists very confused. Maybe we are in the solar system, and we don’t find it strange.
But if we stand outside the solar system, observe the distribution of celestial bodies in the solar system through telescopes, and then compare with other galaxies, you will find that the solar system is so special that it looks like a modified galaxy.
Of course, whatever the origin of GJ 3512b? Its appearance is of great help for human beings to explore and study the mysteries of the universe. It can improve our exploration and improvement of star formation and planet formation theory. I believe no one will say that human science and technology are already very powerful and can explore the mysteries of the universe.
In fact, human science and technology, from the perspective of the universe, may not even be skin. All our current scientific theories about the universe may be wrong or imperfect in the future. This also shows that human beings have limited knowledge of the universe and the formation of stars and planets. With continuous efforts, we can become an interstellar civilization as soon as possible. At that time, we can go 31 light-years away to explore the true face of this small galaxy.
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