This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
The earth is a beautiful Lamba planet, and also a life planet with rich species. The earth can have such a beautiful ecology, but also the birth of life, with the existence of the ocean has a huge relationship, we often say that water is the source of life, the earth is rich in liquid water resources, can provide a hotbed for the birth of life.
The evolution after the birth of life is inseparable from the participation of water, which we can see from 70% of the material of organisms is water. Maybe in the eyes of many people, water is a very ordinary material, because 71% of the earth’s surface area is the ocean, we can see water around us, and our daily life is inseparable from water.
Water is too common in our eyes, but in fact, water is a very unusual substance. When human beings enter the era of science and technology, scientists begin to study and explore the mystery of water. The deeper the research, the more they will find that water is really extraordinary. Now we all know that the boiling point of water is 100 ℃ and the freezing point is 0 ℃.
When the temperature rises to 100 ℃, water will turn into steam. When the temperature drops to 0 ℃, water will freeze and become solid. But have you ever seen liquid water over several hundred meters high? Maybe someone will say, how is that possible? Doesn’t water turn into steam when it reaches 100 degrees centigrade? How can it still be liquid?
If you are studying physics, you should know that the boiling point of water is not a fixed value. The reason why we say that its boiling point is 100 degrees Celsius is under the premise of standard atmospheric pressure. When the atmospheric pressure changes, the boiling point of water also changes. If the atmospheric pressure decreases, the boiling point will decrease; otherwise, when the atmospheric pressure increases, the boiling point will increase.
So where is the strongest atmospheric pressure on the earth’s surface? I believe many friends have thought of the ocean. The ocean has a vast area and is very deep. Although the science and technology of mankind has been very developed, our exploration of the ocean is still only 10%. So there are still many secrets in the ocean that we haven’t discovered.
In theory, when the atmospheric pressure rises, the water temperature will also rise, and when the temperature is close to 400 degrees, it will reach a critical point. The formation of water will change, so deep in the ocean, the pressure is very high, and here near the bottom, the temperature is also very high. So is the water in the deep sea still liquid?
On the whole, due to the high atmospheric pressure in the deep sea, even if it is affected by the geothermal temperature, the water will still be liquid, rather than turning into steam when the surface temperature reaches 100 ℃. However, in the theory of scientists, there should be another form of water, that is high-temperature liquid water. This kind of water is likely to exist in some parts of the deep sea.
After continuous exploration, scientists finally found this kind of supercritical water deep in the Atlantic Ocean. During a scientific research expedition on the bottom of the Atlantic Ocean, scientists accidentally found a high-temperature liquid vent. After measurement, they found that the water temperature spewed out here was more than 460 degrees. Scientists named it “supercritical water”.
I know that under normal circumstances, when the temperature reaches more than 400 ℃, it is difficult for water to form a liquid state. But nature is so magical, especially in the mysterious ocean, it is not surprising to find this kind of supercritical water. The existence of this kind of water has opened scientists’ eyes to a new level of understanding of water.
It’s incredible that high-temperature liquid water can be completely combined with water vapor, which is beyond the magic of nature’s power. So what’s the use of supercritical water? Since it is a kind of water beyond our cognition, there must be something extraordinary about it. Through research, scientists found that this kind of water has the characteristics of “sulfuric acid”, which has a very strong corrosion effect. A lot of metal can be easily corroded by it, and it will burn after contacting with oxygen, forming a raging flame.
Supercritical water plays a very important role in the development and application of human science and technology. It may have other functions, which have not been explored and understood by us. With the discovery of supercritical water, people have a new understanding of this seemingly ordinary matter. It is possible that in the future, we will find other forms of water, and water may be more and more important to the development of human civilization in the future.
Perhaps in the eyes of many people, water is used to drink, is a living material. But in the eyes of scientists, the drinking effect of water is only a small application. The greater role is the fuel of nuclear fusion energy in the future. I believe many people know that the development of human civilization is also the development of energy, and the rapid development of energy makes mankind have the present civilization achievements.
But our past energy is fossil energy, this kind of energy is not very good energy, it will bring serious ecological environment pollution. The main reason why the earth’s ecology is deteriorating step by step is the use of a large number of fossil energy. Moreover, the energy intensity of fossil energy is also limited. I believe many people know that although human science and technology have been making progress in the past 50 years, the core energy science and technology has made little progress.
Let’s take space technology as an example. 50 years ago, human beings had realized the manned landing on the moon. If there is a qualitative breakthrough in human energy technology in 50 years, it will be very easy to carry a man to the moon now. But in fact, 50 years later, it is still not easy for human beings to land on the moon. There is no breakthrough in the technology of manned lunar landing in 50 years.
Except for manned landing on the moon, other space technologies have made little progress. For example, 50 years ago, it took about half a year for our probe to reach Mars. Now it will take about half a year for the probe to go to Mars, and there is no obvious progress in the speed of the probe. The main reason is that there is no breakthrough in energy technology.
Only by breaking through the shackles of fossil energy can we make a qualitative leap in human civilization and enter a new era. On top of fossil energy is controllable nuclear fusion, which is a very clean energy without any pollution. Moreover, the energy level is totally different from that of fossil energy. The two are not in the same level.
The fuel for controllable nuclear fusion is also very simple and common, which is rich in water resources. So we may think that there is too much water now, but in the future, the earth’s water resources may not be able to meet the needs of human beings. Fortunately, the solar system is a galaxy rich in water resources. There are many planets with more water resources than the earth. We don’t have to worry that there will be no water available in the future.
Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.