Is “chromium” on terracotta warriors a secret? Black technology leading the world in 2000, cool?

The terracotta warriors and horses of Qin Shihuang are famous for their huge scale. It is known as the eighth wonder in the world. It is also one of the greatest discoveries in the archaeological field since the 20th century. It is also the most spectacular Mausoleum of emperors in the past dynasties. As we all know, Qin Shihuang is a greedy man. Before he died, he built a huge Mausoleum of Qin Shihuang. The magnificence and magnificence of Qin Shihuang’s Terracotta Warriors and horses are amazing. It is the most complex ancient tomb with the most abundant contents in the world.

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A bronze sword of the terracotta warriors of the Qin Dynasty was pressed for 2000 years. The sword is smooth and the sword is not rusty

For thousands of years, Qin Shihuang has become the most critical figure in history. It seems that his merits and demerits have become an endless topic. Qin Shihuang was alive, eliminated the six countries, realized the unification of China, set up the county system, unified the economic system, unified the characters, and was widely praised by later generations. However, what people hate is that Qin Shihuang is a violent king, burning books and burying scholars, wantonly building terracotta warriors and horses buried with the emperor, and so on, which makes him lose in history. It is worth mentioning that the terracotta warriors and horses are the symbol of Qin Shihuang’s identity. Even after his death, he hopes that his descendants can be emperors of this land from generation to generation, and use centralized power to maintain the unification of the country. The purpose of burial with the army situation of clay figurine and mud horse is to show his achievements in annexing six countries and unifying the world.

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It took the first emperor of Qin Dynasty 39 years to build a mausoleum to be buried with him. The appearance of the terracotta warriors and horses not only showed the real appearance of the domestic soldiers in the first emperor’s period, but also appreciated the powerful military appearance of the state of Qin when it swept the six countries. The unearthed pottery man and horse have reached the state of “excellent craftsmanship”, and the technique of making pottery has won the admiration of later generations. Among the many unearthed cultural relics, what shocked the world most is that several bronze swords unearthed by archaeologists in Pit 2 of the terracotta warriors and horses in 1994 are 86 cm long, with 8 edges on the body, which are extremely symmetrical and balanced. After being unearthed from the ground, they are still free from corrosion and rust, as clean as new, and extremely sharp. After more than 2000 years of wind and rain, any metal sword will corrode. It’s amazing why this bronze sword is as brand new as it was before.

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Chinese archaeologist: the credit of ancient black technology “chromium”

Why did the bronze weapons in the pit of Qin Shihuang’s Terracotta Warriors and horses remain incorruptible for thousands of years? For this problem, Chinese archaeologists have conducted in-depth research.

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First of all, the workmanship of these bronze swords is extremely fine. It was mentioned in the ancient poem that the swords were forged after years of good work and were named Longquan. It takes a long time to make a sword, and many of the details of the work are very strict, so that a sword can be born.

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The bronze sword unearthed from the Qin mausoleum is made of bronze. Bronze is a mixture of copper and tin or an alloy of copper, tin and lead. Before smelting bronze, copper, tin or copper, tin, lead and other raw materials should be blended according to the reasonable proportion rule, which is called blending, which is the key link to determine the performance of copper sword. The technique of sword making in Qin Dynasty is very exquisite. The bronze sword body is very thin, and there are eight edges on the surface. The error of each edge is less than 0.05mm, and the lines are rarely bent. After casting, it is difficult to achieve such a level of regularity by hand grinding. This kind of casting can be made so thin, and it also has so many edges, so the workmanship design is exquisite.

Secondly, archaeological experts believe that the discovery of a layer of chromium salt compound with a thickness of 15 microns on the bronze sword body played an important role. It was the “black technology” of the Qin Dynasty and had strong corrosion resistance. As a rare metal, chromium is characterized by high temperature resistance. It was not discovered by scientists until the 1930s, and its melting point is 4000 ℃. It has the characteristics of light weight, high melting point, good oxidation resistance, good thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The oxidation behavior of chromium in the process of high temperature atmospheric heating is of great significance to its industrial production. Generally speaking, the oxidation resistance of materials depends on the oxide layer formed on the surface, and the formation of oxide layer varies with the microstructure, chemical composition and surface conditions of materials. In the Qin Dynasty more than 2000 years ago, the social productivity was extremely low, and it was a pity that people could master such advanced technology. It can be seen that the bronze sword in the Qin mausoleum, which has not been corroded, is not a coincidence at all, but the credit of ancient black technology “chromium”.

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The “black technology” of 2000 years ago caused controversy all over the world, and experts questioned: it’s pure coincidence

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If the chromium on the bronze sword of terracotta warriors and horses plays an important role in anti-corrosion, then it poses a challenge to the patent technology of the United States. The “ancient black technology” of this important discovery has caused controversy all over the world. Many Western scientists believe that the Qin Dynasty more than 2000 years ago could not have this black technology.

Nature, the world’s top scientific journal, once published a paper by archaeologist Marcos Martin Torres of Cambridge University, denying the corrosion prevention of chromium in ancient China’s black technology. He pointed out that the lack of rust on bronze swords was directly related to the soil problems in Xi’an. Through simulation experiments, he believed that the lacquerware and soil in the pit of terracotta warriors and horses in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty were not rusty In other words, it’s a coincidence to understand the chromium on bronze swords. It’s not the intention of ancient black science and technology.

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However, the discovery in the process of testing the soil around the pit of terracotta warriors and horses overturned this conclusion. The surrounding soil did contain chromium, but its chromium content was very small. The simulation experiment showed that the chromium content was not enough to transfer to the weapon surface to form the effect of “chromium plating”. So, the “chromium” was not transferred out of a sudden.

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After removing the soil, the next suspect is the pigment. A lot of pigments are used on the surface of the terracotta warriors and horses, and most of the pigments come from natural ores, which are likely to contain chromium. However, the test results once disappointed scientists that there is no chromium in the pigments.

So the last remaining object of suspicion is lacquer. Before painting, the Terracotta Warriors used several layers of paint. Although the lacquer base is a pure natural product, which mainly comes from the lacquer trunk, in order to make the lacquer have better performance, Qin people will add some additives, which may include the element of “chromium”.

After testing some residual paints, it was found that the chromium content was very high, several times higher than that in the surrounding soil. The reason why the content of chromium in bronze arrowhead and crossbow trigger is higher, and even achieve the effect of “rust free” is precisely because the “chromium” in the paint is transferred to the weapons. Therefore, many people question the chromium plating technology of terracotta warriors and horses, and think it is a “coincidence”.

But is this really a coincidence? Many Chinese netizens think that the role of paint is not rust? Isn’t it “antirust technology” that the ancients added chromium to paint for antirust? Nowadays, there are many controversies about why the “bronze sword” unearthed in the Qin mausoleum has not been corroded. No matter whether it belongs to black technology or not, we can’t deny that this bronze sword embodies the exquisite casting technology of ancient ancestors and the wisdom of ancient Chinese antirust technology. There are many similar cultural relics in the mausoleum of the first emperor of Qin Dynasty, which are full of mystery. I believe that with the development of science and technology The development of science and technology will eventually solve the problem for us!

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