4.2 light years away from the earth, there may be a super earth, which is a frozen world

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

Human beings are the only intelligent life on earth, born millions of years ago. After the birth of human beings, through a long evolution, we entered the era of civilization, and after tens of thousands of years of development, human civilization finally embarked on the road of scientific and Technological Development hundreds of years ago.

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The emergence of science and technology has brought great leap to human civilization, not only let us have more knowledge of the world, but also let human beings finally realize the dream of flying to the sky, go out of the earth and begin to explore the universe.

When we walk out of the earth and see the vast universe, an unavoidable question arises: does extraterrestrial life and alien civilization exist? Although human beings have been searching for extraterrestrial life for more than half a century and have not found anything, almost all scientists believe that extraterrestrial life exists, and the universe is unlikely to have only earth as a living planet.

While searching for extraterrestrial life that may exist in the solar system, scientists also focus on the broader interstellar space outside the solar system. We should know that the solar system is only one of the 100 billion star systems with the Galactic coefficient, and different star systems will have planets, among which there may be earth like planets very similar to the earth.

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Although we don’t know what kind of form extraterrestrial life exists in and what kind of planetary environment it needs, we take the earth as a template, and all earth like planets that are very similar to the earth are more likely to have life. So, when scientists search for exoplanets through telescopes, they focus on earth like planets that are very similar to the earth.

Because the distance of the universe is based on light years, the average distance between stars is more than a few light years, and human technology is still very limited. Therefore, when we search for exoplanets, we mainly focus on the areas near the solar system. Because we can observe more data for the exoplanets closer to the solar system, and searching for the planets near the solar system can also make preparations for the future human beings to go out of the solar system for field exploration.

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The nearest galaxy to the solar system is the nearby galaxy, which is about 4.2 light-years away from the earth. It is a three-star system composed of a nearby star and alpha Centaurus. In other words, there are three stars in the neighboring galaxy, and the three body civilization in the science fiction “three bodies” comes from here.

The Samsung system is far less stable than the single star system such as the solar system. In “three bodies”, the living environment of the three body people is extremely bad, and they are forced to evolve various unimaginable methods to avoid the chaotic era. In reality, the environment of nearby galaxies is very similar to that described in the novel. Nearby stars often have energy bursts, which blow a lot of hot solar wind into the nearby space.

If our sun, like neighboring stars, often bursts of energy, then the earth’s environment will be much worse than it is now, and it may not be suitable for survival at all. Are there any earth like planets near the nearest star? The answer is yes. Scientists have found the star B at a distance of 7.5 million kilometers.

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The mass of neighboring star B is about 1.3 times that of the earth, and its revolution period is about 11.2 Earth days. On the whole, neighboring star B is in the habitable zone of the current star system, just like the earth. If the neighboring star is replaced by the sun, then the neighboring star B is also a beautiful ecological star like the earth.

However, because the nearby galaxy is a three-star system, the temperament of the nearby star is very irritable, and there are often bursts of energy. Therefore, the environment of the nearby star B is very different from that of the earth, and the surface radiation seriously exceeds the standard. According to the prediction of scientists, the surface radiation of the nearby star B is at least 400 times that of the earth.

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In addition to planet B, there may be a super earth in the nearby galaxy, named by scientists as C. There is no definite answer for the existence of the neighboring star C. according to the high-precision search instrument provided by the European Southern Observatory, scientists from the University of Crete and the Turin Observatory in Italy speculated that there might be such a super earth by comparing the slight wobble of a certain angle and period of the neighboring star.

If neighboring star C exists, its distance is 1.5 times of the distance between the earth and the sun, its mass is more than six times of the earth, and it is likely to be an earth like planet. In addition, the mass of the nearby star itself is smaller than that of the sun, so the nearby star C will be a frozen star with a surface temperature as low as minus 234 ℃.

Of course, the existence of the next star C needs more observation data. Perhaps in the near future, scientists will be able to observe more data, so as to truly discover this super earth. So are there only two planets in a three-star system like neighboring galaxies? I’m afraid it’s more than that.

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In the universe, two star system and three star system are common, but single star system like solar system is rare. If there are only two planets in a three-star system, it seems unreasonable. Therefore, there are probably other planets in the neighboring galaxies. Even in the habitable zone, there may be earth like planets. However, due to our limited observation technology, they cannot be found.

At present, people observe and search for exoplanets mainly through transit method, that is, through the light and dark of stars and other changes, and also to determine whether there are planets around them. The stars with larger mass are more likely to be observed by us because of their higher energy level, so as to determine whether there are planets around them.

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But the neighboring star is a relatively dark star. Although it often has energy bursts, it has smaller mass and lower radiation energy level. Although it is close to the earth, it is not easy to find the hidden planets around it.

Even so, the nearby galaxy is still a galaxy that scientists focus on observing and studying, because it is the most recent Galaxy for us, and it is also one of the most promising targets for human exploration in the future. Once the controllable nuclear fusion is realized in the future, it is possible to realize the preliminary sub light speed flight technology. At that time, human beings will have the ability to walk out of the solar system.

In the vast interstellar space outside the solar system, we can detect a very limited range, and the nearest neighbor galaxy from the earth will undoubtedly become the first extrasolar system explored by human beings. As long as our probe or spacecraft can enter the neighboring galaxy, then all the structure and layout of the galaxy will be known to us.

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From a scientific point of view, even if there are earth like planets in the habitable zone of neighboring galaxies, the probability of life and even civilization is very low, but we still can not completely rule out the possibility of the existence of three body civilization. We should know that life still exists in some very bad environments on earth, which means that life has a very strong ability to adapt to the environment. Perhaps a very powerful civilization will be born in such a bad galaxy as the neighboring galaxy, which is not impossible.

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