At the end of last century, with the help of science and technology, human beings finally walked out of the earth and saw the vast starry sky beyond the earth. Standing on the earth to see the stars and standing outside the earth to see the stars, that is completely two different feelings.
Standing on the earth and looking at the starry sky, we can’t feel the vastness of the universe and the smallness of the earth. But after walking out of the earth, we really feel the smallness of the universe and the earth. Standing outside the earth, our first view is the solar system, which is the mother galaxy of the earth and the home of human beings.
If we want to go out of the solar system and explore the extrasolar sky in the future, we must first have enough knowledge of the solar system. The solar system can be divided into inner galaxy and outer galaxy. The inner galaxy is relatively close to us. Just after human beings came out of the earth, the first stars to be explored are the inner galaxy, such as the moon, Venus and Mars.
Compared with the inner galaxy, the outer solar system is the most attractive place for scientists. It is a blind spot for human exploration. If we want to know more about the outer solar system, especially the edge of the solar system, we need to make close observation with the detector.
In the last century, the great scientist Tesla once made a conjecture about the edge of the solar system: there is a powerful “energy shield” to protect the solar system. So does this energy shield really exist? Because there is a blind spot for us to explore, and the astronomical telescope can’t observe it at all, we have to send interstellar probes to explore the mysteries of the edge of the solar system.
So in 1977, NASA launched Voyager 1 and Voyager 2. Although these two probes came out of the earth in the same year, their emphasis is different. Voyager 1’s mission is relatively simple, that is, to move out of the solar system until forever, while Voyager 2 has more missions, and needs to complete the preliminary exploration of various planets on the way forward.
Therefore, Voyager 1 reached the edge of the solar system early and crossed the top of the heliosphere, while Voyager 2 lagged far behind Voyager 1. For scientists, Voyager 2 is more important. It can bring us more data about the outer solar system and the edge of the solar system, so that we can have a better understanding of the edge of the solar system. It can be said that Voyager 2 has made great contributions to human beings Give more.
Since its departure in 1977, Voyager 2 has visited four major planets in the outer solar system – Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. After the gravitational acceleration of these planets, it can get rid of the sun’s gravitational escape speed. After 41 years of sailing, we finally arrived at the edge of the solar system to prepare for crossing the heliosphere.
I believe many friends have heard of the heliosphere or the top of the solar wind layer, so what is the heliosphere? It’s actually a region where the solar wind comes into contact with the Galactic medium. As we all know, the sun will continue to emit strong electromagnetic activities, releasing high-energy particle streams around, which is the so-called solar wind.
Solar wind is a kind of high-energy particle flow, which starts from the sun and spreads in all directions of the solar system until it meets the medium from interstellar space. When the solar wind meets with the interstellar medium, there will be a violent collision reaction, thus forming a huge solar circle, which surrounds the solar system. It is the “energy shield” predicted by Tesla in the last century, which is also known as the solar wind zenith by scientists, also known as the heliosphere.
Voyager 2 is equipped with isotron analyzer, which can better detect the plasma state deep in the solar system. Although scientists know through theoretical research that the contact between solar wind and interstellar medium will produce a heliosphere, we have no idea about the data of this heliosphere.
When Voyager 2 reached the edge of the solar system and crossed the heliosphere, it could collect the data of the heliosphere and send it back to earth. So how does the top of the solar wind layer come into contact with interstellar space? Voyager 2 brought us the answer. It turns out that the top of the solar wind layer is not directly connected with the interstellar space, but separated by a hot interstellar plasma wall.
The “wall of fire” has a temperature of at least 30000 degrees and a maximum of 50000 degrees. Its width has reached 220 million kilometers. This distance is equivalent to 1.5 times of the distance between the sun and the earth. Some people may say that if Voyager 2 enters such a high temperature and such a thick “wall of fire”, isn’t it directly oxidized?
If you think so, that’s wrong. High temperature doesn’t mean high heat. We all know that the essence of temperature is the intensity of thermal motion of particles. The more intense the thermal motion of particles, the larger the average animal, the higher the temperature. However, if high temperature wants to radiate in mass, it needs the density of particles.
The more the number of particles in the unit space, the more heat will be generated by the temperature. If there are few particles in the unit space, even if the thermal motion of particles produces a very high temperature, it can not release a lot of heat, and will not have a high temperature effect on the matter in the space.
I believe many friends also know that human beings can produce temperatures as high as 500 million degrees Celsius, which is achieved through the particle collider. But such a high temperature can not cause damage to the collider. The reason is that there are only a few particles in the collider for collision reaction. Although there are hundreds of millions of temperatures, there is no heat released.
The same is true for the “wall of fire” at the edge of the solar system. Although the solar wind collides with the interstellar medium to create the “wall of fire” at tens of thousands of degrees, the heat in the “wall of fire” is not high because of the extremely thin plasma. Voyager 2 receives very little heat and can safely walk through the “wall of fire” and walk out of the “wall of fire” smoothly.
Voyager 2’s process of reaching the edge of the solar system and crossing the “wall of fire” has sent us a lot of data, which helps us to know more about the contact and collision between high-energy solar particles and interstellar media, and also gives us more understanding of the edge of the solar system.
After Voyager 2 passed through the wall of fire, it means that Voyager 2 stepped out of the heliosphere and entered interstellar space. Of course, entering interstellar space does not mean going out of the solar system. In a broad sense, the solar system has a very large range, which is bounded by the Oort cloud, with a diameter of 2 light-years.
At the speed of Voyager 2, it will take about 19600 years for it to get out of the Oort cloud. For such a long time, it has been basically announced that Voyager 2 will not be able to get out of the solar system in the end. Some people may not understand: Voyager 2 already has a relatively high inertial speed. As long as it does not collide with celestial bodies, it can go on all the way. It will go out of the solar system after 19600 years and really enter extrasolar space. Why can’t it go out of the solar system?
Here we are going to talk about Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, both of which have the same mission, that is to find extraterrestrial civilization. In order to explore the extraterrestrial civilization, scientists put a gold record on Voyager, which records the information of human beings and the coordinates of the earth. As long as they are captured by the alien civilization after they leave the solar system, the existence of the earth and human beings will be known by the alien civilization and come to the solar system to contact with human beings.
But let’s not forget that alien civilization is not necessarily friendly. Hawking has also repeatedly issued a warning: do not take the initiative to contact with alien civilization, otherwise human beings will be very dangerous. With the continuous improvement of human’s understanding of the universe, more and more people are worried that Voyager will bring great danger to human beings in the future. Therefore, when human’s scientific and technological strength goes further, it will probably catch up with Voyager 1 and Voyager 2, and then recycle them.