The solar system is our home, the earth’s environment is still very stable, we can live in such a safe and stable earth should be lucky, but the other planets in the solar system can not be so friendly, but there are many kinds of extreme places in the solar system, now let’s focus on several, let’s open our eyes.
1、 The highest mountain
Mars has not only the deepest canyon in the solar system, but also the highest mountain. Mount Olympus is 27 miles high, three times the height of Mount Everest, the highest peak on earth. Olympus may have formed in the same way as volcanoes on earth: because it is above the “hot spot”, under certain conditions, plumes of hot rock gush out from the interior of Mars.
2、 The most violent rainstorm
Uranus and Neptune are different from the gas giant planets Jupiter and Saturn in composition; they are mainly composed of “ice” such as water, ammonia and methane, which is beneficial to the planet’s core: in the mantle of Uranus and Neptune, high temperature may decompose methane into hydrogen and carbon. Astronomers believe that strong pressure could squeeze carbon into crystalline lattices, or diamonds. As beck and Ratcliffe put it, “Diamond hail as small as salt particles and as large as pebbles may constantly impact the liquid mantle and rock core.
The core may be covered with a thick layer of diamonds, more than any diamond mine on earth. ” So far, the “Diamond hail” of Uranus and Neptune has only existed in theory, and planetary scientists say they need more data to determine whether this strange phenomenon really exists. Unfortunately, according to the plan, there are no probes to explore these distant planets.
3、 The stinkiest place
Jupiter’s IO is the most active volcano in the solar system, but it can’t bring people a good experience. It always smells like rotten eggs. This odor is due to hydrogen sulfide in the surface and upper atmosphere of Io. The unique yellow and red color of IO is also related to sulfur compounds. Volcanic eruptions are quite common on Io, and they continue to inject new sulfur into the atmosphere of Io.
4、 The deepest ocean
On earth, we are impressed by the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean, which is 6.8 miles deep. However, the ocean on Jupiter’s moon Europa dwarfs the Mariana Trench. Although Europa’s surface is covered with craters and crisscross ice, measurements from NASA’s Galileo spacecraft and other probes show that there is a liquid ocean hidden beneath Europa. Some measurements suggest a depth of 62 miles.
The researchers believe that the temperature inside Europa should be very high due to the tidal pressure and radiant energy exerted by Saturn and other massive satellites. Europa’s vast liquid ocean makes it one of the most promising destinations for us to search for extraterrestrial life.
5、 The strange rotation of Titan
Among the eight major planets in the solar system, Saturn has the largest number of satellites. Among these satellites, the orbit of satellite 7 is the most strange. Titan is the “big guy” in the solar system, with a three axis length of about 255 × 163 × 137 miles (about 410 × 260 × 220 km). Because this kind of satellite usually has enough gravity to pull it into an ellipse.
Most heavy moons are locked by tidal forces, which means that one side of the moon is always in the direction of its planet. However, Titan’s peculiar shape prevents it from being locked in by tidal forces, because the gravitational pull of Saturn and another moon, Titan, has an uneven effect on Titan. As a result, the rotation pattern of Titan is difficult to predict. For Titan, “it’s impossible to predict its axis of rotation after 300 days – it could point anywhere!
There are so many extreme places in a solar system, the interstellar space outside the solar system, the whole galaxy, and the extreme places like the solar system. Some of them are even extreme to the point that we can’t imagine. The universe is such a magical place. The more you explore and understand it, the less you feel yourself and the more mysterious and great the universe is.