The winter solstice in 2020 has passed. It is the most important solar term among the 24 solar terms in China, and it is also a traditional folk festival in China. So what is the winter solstice? From the literal understanding, the winter solstice is that winter has been extremely cold. At this time, you will feel very cold. However, the cold of the winter solstice will be lower than the previous temperature, but it is higher than the temperature after. That is to say, the winter solstice is not the coldest time, and it is really cold after the winter solstice.
But it is clear that the day of the winter solstice is the day when the sun is directly on the Tropic of cancer, theoretically speaking. If the point of direct sunlight moves northward, the temperature should be higher and higher. How can the temperature be lower and lower instead?
All the cold knowledge about the history of the winter solstice is hidden in it
In ancient China, the saying that “the winter solstice is as big as the year” has been widely spread among the people. The winter solstice is also known as “the small year”, which represents the coming of the new year. In the eyes of the ancients, the winter solstice is as important as the new year. It is regarded as a big festival. Therefore, there is a saying that the winter solstice is as big as the year.
During the reign of King Wu of Zhou Dynasty, he regarded the winter solstice as the day of the end of the year, and thought that the winter solstice was as important as the Spring Festival. As an important traditional festival, emperors began to offer sacrifices to gods in the winter solstice as early as the pre Qin period. “Where music, round bell for palace, yellow bell for horn Then all the gods will come down, and you can get the ceremony. ” Since then, the Han Dynasty began to carry out the winter solstice ancestor worship, worship the gods and ancestors, and the government even held some “winter celebration” ceremony.
There is such a record in Houhanshu: “before and after the winter solstice, a gentleman should settle down and be quiet. He should never listen to the government and choose a good time to save his affairs.” In other words, on the day of the winter solstice, all officials of the imperial court have to rest, while businesses and tourism industry have to close down. Relatives and friends have to give each other delicious food and visit each other. The winter solstice was regarded as a national ceremony by emperors of all dynasties. If the emperor was unable to attend the ceremony in person due to special circumstances such as illness, he would appoint the most trusted prince or minister to do the work on his behalf.
The picture shows the temple of heaven
In fact, as early as in ancient times, there was a specific introduction about “winter solstice”, which is hidden in Du Fu’s poem “after the solstice”. From “the beginning of the winter solstice, I was thinking of Luoyang far away in Jiannan, to the end of sorrow, I was revived by poetry, and the poetry became chanting and turned to desolation”. Du Fu has clearly told us that the winter solstice is the shortest day of the year. After the winter solstice, the sun will move northward, and the days in the northern hemisphere will become longer and the nights shorter. In addition to Du Fu, during the Wei and Jin Dynasties, Cao Zhi wrote the poem “offering socks and shoes to celebrate the winter solstice”. The poem specifically introduces the custom of giving shoes to each other during the winter solstice. In addition, in Lu You’s song Xinyou winter solstice, it also introduces the winter solstice, “today when the sun comes to the south, my door is quiet.” It means that the sun is at the southernmost, that is, the winter solstice. “After the sacrifice, they all help and worship, and they all go to bed early.” This sentence is about the custom of the ancient winter solstice. Lu You is telling the world that the day of the winter solstice is to offer sacrifices to ancestors. This kind of ceremony will be held from the day before to the night of the winter solstice.
During the winter solstice, the ancients paid attention to health preservation, eating dumplings in the north and rice dumplings in the south
In the Tang and Song Dynasties, more attention was paid to the “winter solstice” festival, because the winter solstice was the arrival of the cathode and the beginning of Yang Qi. During the alternation of yin and Yang, the emperors attached great importance to the health preservation of the winter solstice, and there were also very important changes in diet. From the previous excessive meat to light, many imperial doctors in the palace began to formulate classic prescriptions for health preservation of the winter solstice according to the health preservation theory of traditional Chinese medicine. Since the winter solstice, there have been different celebrations in the north and the south. The northerners have formed the habit of eating dumplings on the winter solstice, while the southerners have formed the habit of eating rice dumplings on the winter solstice. The custom of eating dumplings in the north is related to Zhang Zhongjing, a medical saint. It is said that the custom of eating dumplings on the winter solstice is to commemorate Zhang Zhongjing, a medical saint who created the predecessor of dumplings, quhanjiaoer soup. Gu Yun: “October 1, winter solstice, every household eat dumplings.”
Before the formation of 24 solar terms, winter solstice and summer solstice were the first solar terms
When it comes to the 24 solar terms, everyone in China knows it. However, if we ask where the 24 solar terms come from, few people can tell why. The 24 solar terms in China are derived from the phenological calendar, so what is the phenological calendar? It is mainly related to seasonal changes in natural phenomena. For thousands of years, the Chinese people have continued to this day through different forms of farming. It can be said that the 24 solar terms are the product of ancient agricultural civilization. It is the ancient ancestors’ compliance with the farming time. By observing the movement of celestial bodies, the withering of plants, the migration of birds and animals, and the cycle of seasons, the ancients naturally formed the practice of marking the farming season with phenology, meteorology and other phenomena, which is called solar terms Law. Due to the different latitude and climate, the time and duration of the season are different, and the cultivation methods are also different. The determination of the 24 solar terms also depended on the Big Dipper. More than 2000 years ago, by observing the direction of the Big Dipper, the ancients divided the four seasons of the year. In this way, they determined the four solar terms of the beginning of spring, the beginning of summer, the beginning of autumn and the beginning of winter. It can be said that the 24 solar terms were the product of ancient agricultural civilization. It was the ancient ancestors who followed the agricultural time and observed the movement of celestial bodies.
However, it is worth mentioning that before the formation of the 24 solar terms, the earliest solar terms were winter solstice and summer solstice. So in ancient society, the level of productivity was low, how did ancient ancestors determine the winter solstice? In fact, the method is very simple. In the spring and Autumn period, ancient people used tugui to observe the sun (tugui is an ancient tool for measuring the length of the sun’s shadow). According to the length of the sun’s shadow, they can judge which day is the winter solstice and which day is the summer solstice. The winter solstice has the longest shadow and the summer solstice has the shortest shadow. On the basis of the formation of these two solar terms, ancient ancestors discovered the vernal equinox and autumnal equinox, and then there were four solar terms in a year.
The picture shows tugui
Why isn’t the winter solstice the coldest time of the year?
The winter solstice is located at S23 degrees, which is characterized by the shortest sunshine in all seasons of the year. From a geographical point of view, the sun is the farthest day from us on the winter solstice. In other words, the day is the shortest and the night is the longest on the winter solstice. After the winter solstice, the sun is getting closer and closer to us. At this time, the day will gradually turn into a day. For example, before the winter solstice, the northeast is still bright at about seven in the morning. After the winter solstice, the northeast is already bright at six or seven in the morning. The duration of the day decreases day by day before the winter solstice, and increases day by day after the winter solstice. The so-called “extreme things will turn against each other”. The Yin reaches the extreme and the Yang begins to grow. Therefore, this is why the ancients also called the day of the winter solstice “the birth of one Yang”. Generally speaking, after the winter solstice, the days get longer and the sun gets closer and closer to us. Why is the weather getting colder and colder?
The picture shows the movement of direct sunlight
1. During the winter solstice, the sun moves northward, and the earth’s temperature is affected by many factors
In the 300 million years after the formation of the sun, the earth gradually formed. At the beginning of its formation, the earth was just a fireball with extremely high temperature inside and outside. With the successive collisions between large and small stars and the earth, the earth’s orbit was cleaned up, and the earth began to enter a long cooling period. The earth’s surface gradually cooled from more than 3000 degrees Celsius to the present average surface temperature The temperature is 16 degrees centigrade. In the long years since then, the temperature inside the earth has gradually been cooled. For human beings, the only heat they can get depends on the light and heat provided by the sun.
At present, in addition to sunlight can affect the temperature of the earth, geographical location, ocean distribution and many other factors will also affect the temperature of the earth. Some netizens questioned: “why is the temperature getting colder and colder after the winter solstice? “In fact, the reason is very simple. In addition to the influence of sunlight, the earth is also affected by geographical location and other factors, and more heat will be lost. Let’s take a car as an example. Before driving, we need to fill it up with gas. Affected by external factors, such as driving on a hillside and a long journey, the more fuel the car consumes. In addition, if the fuel tank is filled up in summer, due to the high temperature in summer, the pressure in the fuel tank will be too high, and the volatility of gasoline will be strong, which will lead to excessive fuel consumption. This is probably the reason why it gets colder and colder after the winter solstice.
2. The geothermal temperature did not drop to the minimum
The geothermal temperature we are talking about here does not refer to hot springs, nor does it refer to indoor heating in the north in winter, but refers to outdoor surface temperature. In the cold winter, the fertile soil will be frozen, and the river water will form a thick ice layer. Before the winter solstice, due to the heat transfer efficiency, the surface temperature does not drop to the lowest. After the winter solstice, the surface temperature gradually drops, until half a month later, the surface temperature will drop to the lowest point. At this time, even if the sun irradiation time is long and the day is long, the temperature will also change with the surface temperature This is one of the important reasons why the weather gets colder after the winter solstice. In Jiangsu and Zhejiang, there is another proverb about the winter solstice, that is, the winter solstice is sunny, the first month is rainy; the winter solstice is rainy, the first month is sunny. These simple proverbs contain a weather phenomenon. If the weather before and after the winter solstice is mixed with rain and snow, then it will be sunny in the following days. If the winter solstice does not fall, then it will be rainy and snowy in the following days.
The beginning of the 24 solar terms is the winter solstice, which is the essence of the development of Chinese traditional culture. It is deeply rooted in the minds of every Chinese. The 24 solar terms affect the time system arrangement of our Chinese people, so we must protect the 24 solar terms. Now it has moved from China’s intangible cultural heritage to the world’s intangible cultural heritage, and it is an integral part of our Chinese traditional culture, It is also one of the most vivid cultural symbols to enhance the cultural cohesion of our whole nation. In the process of inheritance and development, we should protect the 24 solar terms, follow the natural solar term change rules in the development and progress of the times, and only by producing according to the solar terms can we continue life and civilization!