Is there life on Mars? For this problem, I think many people are sure. To be more precise, there has been a case: Although NASA’s three probes have not found direct evidence of life on the red planet, we can find 100% evidence by studying the similar environment on earth. The researchers found that bacteria on earth can survive on “alien food.”. The amazing discovery provides a theoretical basis for the possible existence of extraterrestrial life.
In recent years, there has been a new interest in manned missions to the moon and even Mars. Such efforts will inevitably lead to the exposure of microorganisms in astronauts and equipment to extraterrestrial environment. Scientists have now found that bacteria can survive in extreme outer space environment, which indicates that primitive forms of extraterrestrial life can do the same. No matter how pure astronauts and their instruments are, microbes are inevitably with them. Because bacteria have great adaptability, they can even survive in space travel and survive in the outer space environment.
Recently, scientists selected four bacteria from non strict environment, which are pathogenic, including Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In order to determine the possibility of survival and growth of extraterrestrial organisms, the researchers developed a minimum diet for bacteria based on nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and water, adding carbohydrates found in carbon meteorites. The results show that even under this minimum diet, bacteria can survive and even reproduce.
Subsequent experiments found that the adaptation of bacteria, especially Klebsiella pneumoniae, led to changes in cell membrane, which was the result of the enhanced response of the immune system to bacteria, thus making bacteria more immune. Studies on cultured cells and mice have shown that the bacterium depends on extraterrestrial nutrition for survival, and because of this necessary adaptation, its toxicity is reduced, which means that the risk of alien infection still exists.
Accordingly, other studies have shown that space travel has a negative impact on the function of the immune system, making astronauts more and more vulnerable to infection. The results show that alien bacteria can breathe helium and hydrogen on exoplanets, which is consistent. If so, the search for extraterrestrial life would move from a planet with enough oxygen to one with an atmosphere that looks uninhabitable.
The researchers, led by Professor salasiegel, a planetary scientist at MIT, began to study whether the atmosphere composed of hydrogen and helium can support extraterrestrial life. They chose two kinds of earth creatures that can survive in anaerobic conditions, one is Escherichia coli, and the other is bacteria that exist in the intestines of many animals, including human beings. The researchers placed living cultures of the two organisms in several different flasks and replaced the air inside with other gases.
One team filled a group of bottles with pure hydrogen, and the other team replaced the bottles with pure helium. Every few hours, scientists would take out some Escherichia coli and yeast to test whether they survived. The researchers report that these two organisms can survive in all atmospheres.
However, the fact that these two organisms live in pure hydrogen and pure helium environments is a potentially important influence for astrobiologists, because this discovery makes it possible to find a broader habitat for life on different habitable planets.