How did humans evolve? It is estimated that many people will say that they evolved from chimpanzees. It is estimated that chimpanzees and gorillas are the only primate mammals closest to human beings on this earth. However, scientists found that a chimpanzee named Oliver found in Africa has a mutation in its gene. It can not only walk upright, but also has very little thick black hair on its body. All its behaviors are very abnormal. It seems that it has always become a clone of human beings. It is 98.8% similar to human genes, only 1.2% different from human genes. What’s the matter What’s going on? Let’s take a look below.
The origin of human beings is a very complicated subject. Africa is considered as the birthplace of human beings
If we want to find out the cause of the gene mutation of this Oliver chimpanzee found in Africa, we must first understand the origin of human beings. Where are the human beings living in the blue earth from? This problem has perplexed human beings for thousands of years. Previously, we told you that the origin of human beings is actually a complex topic, which is also a big mystery in the scientific community. Scientists have been arguing about the origin of human beings. However, from Darwin’s theory of evolution, we know that human beings evolved from apes, which is a very long evolutionary process, while other species are impossible Evolution is like human intelligence and emotional intelligence.
In the process of gene evolution, scientists have conducted in-depth research on it, and found that humans appeared on the earth as early as 60 million years ago, and humans originated in Africa. Scientists have found that the genetic genes of every person on the earth may come from African ethnic groups. This ethnic group is a collection group in Africa and mainly depends on hunting. Only in the process of migration later, it differentiated and formed an independent group. From ancient ape to Australopithecus, from Australopithecus to adult ape, from early Homo sapiens to late Homo sapiens, and finally to the Chinese mountaintop cave man, French Cromagnon man and so on. It can be said that there is no difference between the late Homo sapiens and modern human beings at this time. The origin of human beings is probably like this. There are still great controversies in the scientific community on some minor issues, and we should pay attention to them Regardless, will the chimpanzees with genetic mutations now found in Africa become human? Why are there gene mutations?
Heidelberg, Neanderthal and Cromagnon
African Oliver is not a human species, still belongs to the chimpanzee, is the leader of primates
Chimpanzees and humans have only a 4% genetic difference, which is also because this difference makes humans and chimpanzees, primates, completely separate. In other words, the gap between chimpanzees and humans is at least 6 million years.
In the 1970s, scientists discovered a chimpanzee named Oliver, which was captured in Congo, Africa, and then sold to a trainer. In the long-term research, scientists found that Oliver is very different from chimpanzees of the same kind, and its genetic similarity with human is as high as 98.8%! Not only the hair on the head and chest is small, but even the whole facial contour is very similar to that of human beings. What’s more important is that Oliver walks upright instead of crawling on all fours like other chimpanzees. This amazing discovery also puzzled scientists, and even outsiders suspected that Oliver was the product of scientific experiments, but this guess was quickly denied.
The picture shows Oliver
According to Oliver’s trainer, he said: “in daily training, Oliver is very different from other chimpanzees. He is very smart and can be said to be a good teacher. He can not only walk normally like human beings, but also drink whiskey, smoke cigars and drink coffee. Under the guidance of the trainer, Oliver will do” housework “, such as feeding dogs and so on.
Oliver can do what human beings can do. Is his gene mutation the same as human gene development? When scientists tested Oliver, they found that there were 24 pairs of chromosomes in his body, 24 pairs in chimpanzee, and 23 pairs in human. This shows that although Oliver has gene mutation, he still belongs to chimpanzee, but he is the best among primates. Although the current science and technology are very advanced, it is still impossible to pair human and chimpanzee genes. In other words, Oliver is not the product of a scientific laboratory at all, nor can scientists.
The picture shows Oliver
Did Oliver in Africa have a genetic mutation and become a transitional human species?
Some netizens can’t help asking: “Oliver can imitate human beings to do all kinds of things. Since he has not evolved into human beings, does he belong to the transitional species between chimpanzees and human beings?”
The answer is not that over evolved species are the product of Darwin’s theory of evolution, but they are the product of long-term adaptation of individual organisms, the product of feedback mechanism of life system, and the historical product of genome inheritance and development. In other words, life can optimize its future fate through physiological adaptation or conscious behavior. Therefore, life is an active force. For example, for mammals like humans, their conscious behavior has become crucial in the process of evolution.
The picture shows Oliver
The biggest difference between the African Oliver chimpanzee and the chimpanzee of the same kind is that it does have a gene mutation. Although it is the best among primates and can do things similar to what human beings can do, its gene mutation only occurs in a very small range and will not develop into a species of transitional human beings, so we don’t have to worry, even if it is Modern chimpanzees have a genetic mutation, but it can’t cross the Australopithecus into late Homo sapiens, just like our human evolution. What’s more, it seems that there is only 1.2% genetic difference, but it will take many years to evolve.
At present, Oliver, a chimpanzee, does not have the ability of deep evolution. He will have some thinking ability and recognize virtual things. For example, Oliver has been training under the guidance of the trainer for a long time. He can walk upright, drink coffee and even know the numbers. As long as he answers correctly and does well, the trainer will give him food, bananas and other rewards. If he does not perform well, he will not only be rewarded, but also be punished. Under this long-term domestication, Oliver will naturally become smarter than other chimpanzees and become the leader of primates. However, his genes have not changed greatly and he still belongs to the chimpanzee family.
The picture shows Oliver smoking
What did Oliver look like in the end? Is it still there?
Although Oliver brought a lot of joy to human beings under the guidance of the trainer, it is a pity that Oliver’s life ended at the age of 55 (2012). Oliver’s life span is more than 20 years longer than that of ordinary chimpanzees. The average life span of ordinary chimpanzees is only 35 years old. Fortunately, this chimpanzee named Oliver has not embarked on this road of “being a man”. If it really becomes a human being, how unfortunate it is to face the rapid development of social economy and bear heavy pressure of life.
Compared with gorillas, which chimpanzees represented by Oliver have closer relationship with humans?
From Oliver’s research, we can see that chimpanzees are related to human beings. Then, compared with chimpanzees, gorillas, who are primates, are more closely related to human beings?
Earlier, we told you that the origin of human beings is a very complex topic. Africa is the birthplace of human beings, and it is also the habitat of chimpanzees. Especially in the hot, humid and low-lying dense tropical rain forest, gorillas also like to live here. Gorillas live a polygamous family life with stable group members ranging from 3-5 to 20-30. Gorillas are mainly vegetarians. They like to eat tender leaves, bark, fruits and bamboo shoots of various plants. Among them, leaves account for 80% of their food intake. Sometimes they also steal sugarcane and bananas from orchards.
The picture shows the gorilla
Chimpanzees are smaller than gorillas. The forelimb is longer than the knee. The head is round, the ears are large, protruding to both sides, the eyebrows are high, the nose is small, the lips are long and thin; the hair is black, and the skin is light gray brown to black. Chimpanzees are omnivorous animals. In other words, they are good at eating baboons, forest antelopes, other animals, leaves and fruits. They often hunt large animals such as antelopes and young wild boars. Although gorillas are also related to humans, they are all primate hominid species. In fact, gorillas are far from us. As early as 14 million years ago, our common ancestors and gorillas separated from each other. Six million years ago, the ancestors of chimpanzees and gorillas separated from each other. Later, they evolved into different families Animals of genus and species.
From a scientific point of view, scientists agree that chimpanzees have a higher IQ. The difference of DNA molecular structure between human and chimpanzee is 1.9%, that between human and gorilla is 2.1%, and that between chimpanzee and gorilla is 2.4%. In general, we can see that chimpanzees are the closest relative species to humans.
The picture shows the chimpanzee
Why didn’t modern chimpanzees evolve into humans?
The reason why chimpanzees like Oliver didn’t evolve into humans is that there is no direction for biological evolution. Humans and chimpanzees used to be one family. About 10 million years ago, the Great Rift Valley in Africa was gradually formed. With the change of ecological environment, the grassland area is expanding. In order to adapt to grassland life, we are “natural selection, survival of the fittest.” In this environment, the limbs of primates had obvious evolution. The hind limbs were responsible for walking independently, and the forelimbs were responsible for picking food. The mutation gene of primates’ upright walking began to appear, and gradually spread to the whole population. Gradually, the early human upright walking appeared.
The picture shows Australopithecus
The reason why chimpanzees don’t evolve into humans is that the genes for upright walking belong to mutant genes, which appear with the change of ecological environment. If modern chimpanzees want to evolve into humans, the probability of the emergence of upright walking genes is very low, as low as that of human evolution of wings.
Human evolution is a long process. In this long process, “chimpanzees” have become our closest relatives. Generally speaking, the changes and development of everything follow the natural law. Birth, aging, illness and death are the natural law. Karma is also the natural law. The change of seasons in spring, summer, autumn and winter is the natural law There are many laws in nature. We should conform to them. We can’t destroy them artificially. The ultimate beneficiary of protecting the ecological environment is human beings themselves