In our daily life, sparrow is a common bird, brown, black patchy, widely distributed, it can be said that sparrow is the largest number of birds on the earth, is also the closest to human beings, their reproduction and survival seems to have been around the human habitat, but it is such an ordinary species in the 1950s or so, but once sold in China In the end, China had to import a large number of sparrows from the Soviet Union. Why did this happen? What has sparrow experienced in China?
Basic habits and characteristics of sparrow
Generally, the body length of sparrows is about 13 cm to 15 cm. They are widely distributed. We can see the traces of sparrows in plains, mountains, grasslands, hills and swamps. Sparrows are a kind of birds that like to live in groups and like to move together in groups.
Sparrow has a long history of migration and reproduction. In some places, sparrow is also known as “tile bird” and “house bird”. It seems that it is a real civilian bird, almost everywhere. No matter how bad the ecological environment is, sparrow will survive tenaciously. Unlike swans, sparrows have beautiful singing voice and gorgeous clothes. They are just ordinary birds. In the eyes of many painters, sparrows also represent a kind of spirit, which is inspiring.
In addition, sparrow is an omnivorous animal. Although it mainly eats insects on weekdays, it also feeds on grains and grass seeds in autumn harvest season. In the eyes of many farmers, sparrows are pests just like locusts, because they like to eat crops. Many of the older generation, in order to drive away sparrows, will try their best to catch them. Nevertheless, no one is willing to raise sparrow, perhaps because it is an ordinary bird.
Whenever and wherever we open the window, we can see its small figure. In the vast world, sparrow has been living freely. Even human beings will not worry about its escape or disappear in the field of vision. Not long after the founding of the people’s Republic of China, the sparrow was on the verge of extinction.
How enthusiastic is the campaign to eliminate the four pests and the sparrow?
After the war of resistance against Japan and the war of liberation, soon after the founding of new China, a hundred wastes were waiting for prosperity. For the common people, the first task to solve the food problem was imminent. Only when they were fed and clothed could they be happy. But at that time, some people found that the food just sown by the farmers was about to mature and was eaten by the sparrows.
According to the statistics of relevant experts, each sparrow consumes about 4.5kg of grain every year. According to this calculation, one million sparrows will eat the food of more than 60000 people. With such scientific basis as the backing, people soon established sparrows as pests, and they were called “four pests” along with mice, flies and mosquitoes. At that time, the whole country took advantage of national health In the name of health, the campaign to eliminate the four pests was launched.
However, some people support the elimination of sparrow, one of the four pests, while others oppose it. For example, some scientists in the Soviet Union and some scientific research institutes disagree, because sparrows can eliminate pests on trees and weeds in cities.
But even so, the campaign to eliminate sparrows was still in full swing. In this campaign, sparrows suffered heavy losses. Although they were full of energy, resourcefulness and courage, people all over the country began to mobilize at that time. Whenever they saw the nests of sparrows in the trees, they would be destroyed. In cities and villages, there were special persons in charge of beating gongs and drums to make noise, scare away sparrows and let them go Sparrow can not land, can only keep flying, in the excessive flight, the final sparrow died of hunger or fatigue. And those sparrows who are not tired or starved are hard to escape. The shotgun will hunt them down. This movement of killing sparrows is unprecedented.
In the campaign to eliminate sparrows, Sha Yexin, a Shanghai playwright, once said:
“Under the influence of the sound of gongs and drums, those sparrows were so frightened that they went around the tree for three turns, had no branches to rely on, and then fell to the ground one after another to die. If we dissect the thousands of sparrows that were killed at that time, I dare say that nine out of ten are from acute myocardial infarction, and they are so tired that they are scared to death!”
On April 20, 1958, there was an article in the people’s daily about the killing of birds in Beijing, which made people feel thrilling and extremely tragic
No matter how old the white haired old people or how old the children are, whether they are workers, peasants, cadres, students or soldiers, everyone is armed with weapons and does his best. The whole city has formed a situation of “sparrows crossing the street, everyone shouting and fighting”.
According to the memory of the older generation who participated in the sparrow elimination movement at that time:“
We took sticks, brooms around the yard, found a sparrow flying over, a burst of crazy beat, and even climbed up the house to catch the sparrow there. Later, there were fewer sparrows in the city. Every night, the leader led a team to carry a ladder to pick out sparrows in the rural areas of the suburbs. They caught them and killed them on the spot, breaking their eggs. “
The case of “sparrow” has been vindicated, but it is too late to rely on imports
According to incomplete statistics, in 1958, nearly 200 million sparrows were eliminated in China, among which Henan Province was the most effective. However, it was unexpected that another problem followed after the disappearance of sparrows, which was more serious. The campaign to eliminate the four pests has led to the imminent extinction of sparrows in China. As the number of sparrows continues to decrease, the insects in the farmland begin to become rampant. With the loss of natural enemies sparrows, these pests begin to eat crops recklessly.
Even if people use a lot of pesticides, it still can’t help. The campaign to eliminate sparrows also led to three years of famine. The grain yield was greatly reduced, and the rice yield fell to the bottom in our country. The agricultural output value was terrible. At that time, the loss of grain eaten by the pests after the elimination of sparrows was much more serious than that eaten by sparrows when they existed.
In view of the impact of the sparrow elimination movement, China has set up a “sparrow research coordination group”. At this time, Chairman Mao officially announced the complete cessation of sparrow hunting and killing activities. In 1960, Chairman Mao drafted an instruction on health work for the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China, which said: “one more thing, sparrows should not be attacked, and bedbugs should be replaced. The slogan is to get rid of rats, bedbugs, Cang flies and mosquitoes.” In other words, sparrow is one of the four pests, the hat was removed, its injustice has been vindicated, replaced by bedbugs. No matter in the countryside or in the city, there is almost no trace of sparrows. In order to control the rampant pest in the field, China had to import a large number of sparrows from the Soviet Union. In a few decades, foreign sparrows occupied the original territory of Chinese sparrows.
Why only sparrow was “exterminated” and the other three were safe?
In addition to the four pests, why were only sparrows destroyed and the other three pests safe? Compared with sparrows, flies and mosquitoes carry a lot of bacteria, especially in summer, they are more likely to infect diseases. Mice are also very destructive to the daily life of the makers and people. Why didn’t the four evils movement completely eliminate the three evils? Now they are still huge?
1. Flies and mosquitoes are highly prolific, and even if they are left behind, they will return to large numbers
In our impression, flies and mosquitoes are particularly annoying, very headache. As long as a fly or mosquito comes in, we will chase it. If there are flies or flies in the cooking, the meal can’t be eaten any more. Since ancient times, people have hated flies or mosquitoes. However, in the four pests movement, flies and mosquitoes have not been completely eliminated. The main reason is that their reproductive capacity is particularly strong. Even if there are only three or five flies left, they will begin to breed in a short time and recover their numbers. No matter staying or double flying, the effective mating time of flies can be as long as one hour. The semen of male flies can be stored in the seminal vesicle of female flies for a long time to stimulate their oviposition, which can last for 2-3 weeks to fertilize the eggs. This is an important reason for the high fecundity of flies. In addition, may and June is the breeding season for mosquitoes, and their breeding speed is very fast. This is also the reason why mosquitoes and flies have not been uprooted in the campaign to eliminate the four pests.
Rats are difficult to catch and are not easy to eliminate
The mouse is the fastest breeding mammal with strong survival ability. There are about 3000 kinds of mice in the world, and their footprints can be seen both indoors and outdoors. Mice have a good sense of smell, especially the smell of people. In the movement of eliminating the four pests, mice are extremely difficult to catch. When people are about to get close to them, they will run away quickly. In addition, the location of the mouse’s nest is very hidden, and it is not easy to be found. It is very clever and cunning to hide in the daytime and move at night. Therefore, in the movement of eliminating the four pests, mice escaped by chance and were not killed.
Compared with these three pests, sparrows are more miserable. As long as you pull a bird net and use food to attract them, all sparrows will be destroyed. In addition, it is easier for people to find nests in trees and then destroy them, which is why the number of sparrows will decline in the campaign to eliminate the four pests.
The earth is our common beautiful home. All creatures in the nature are interrelated. In the food chain, the existence of every species has certain inevitability. We should establish the consciousness of protecting ecological balance and maintain ecological balance. Throughout the novel coronavirus pneumonia outbreak, people were trying to kill their own wild animal and destroy the natural ecological environment, causing wild plague. This is the Revenge of nature on human beings. We should keep this painful history in mind and realize that it is very important to protect the ecological environment. For our future generations, we should stop cutting and killing wild animals. We should treat life with a grateful heart and revere nature!