Banana is the most common fruit in our daily life. It is rich in dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium and other elements, and is loved by people. However, what makes us dumbfounded is that the bananas we see in our daily life are not real bananas. The real bananas have been extinct for 56 years, so what are the bananas we eat now?
Huajiao, a second rate substitute
In people’s impression, banana is a kind of tropical fruit, produced in tropical areas. In fact, the earliest origin of bananas should be in Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region, China is also one of the birthplaces of bananas. China has a vast territory and abundant resources. The output of banana ranks the third in the world. Hainan banana is famous for its quality all over the world. In recent years, Hainan is often hit by typhoons, which leads to a downward trend in banana output. However, this has not affected people’s impression of Hainan banana.
The picture shows Hainan banana
In addition, “Yunnan banana” is famous for its delicious taste and good taste. To sum up, there are more than 100 kinds of bananas in the world, which are sweet in taste and low in price, and are deeply loved by consumers. Banana is high in nutrition and low in calories. It is rich in phosphorus, tryptophan, sugar, potassium, magnesium, vitamin A and vitamin C, as well as cellulose. According to traditional Chinese medicine, banana is sweet in taste and cold in nature. It can clear away heat, moisten intestines and promote gastrointestinal peristalsis. For example, it is mentioned in the book Ben Cao Qiu yuan that banana can relieve cough, moisten lung and relieve alcohol, clear spleen and smooth intestines. In other popular science books on food science, banana can also be used for lung and stomach injury, dry mouth, hemorrhoids and blood, etc. In addition, banana is rich in dietary fiber, which can promote digestion and intestinal peristalsis, so eating banana can promote defecation, which is also very good for human beings.
The picture shows banana in Yunnan
According to relevant statistics, bananas account for about 75% of the global tropical fruit trade, and the number of bananas wiped out by people on earth is at least 100 billion per day. It can be seen that bananas are the best among many fruits.
Although we still don’t know who is the first banana eater in the world, it can’t be denied that the birthplace of bananas is located in Papua New Guinea island in the Pacific Ocean. This island has unique advantages, such as four distinct seasons, sufficient water environment and soil conditions, especially the use of bananas for growth. Local aborigines also take bananas as their staple food. Because the banana tree is very high, it is also very expensive to eat, and it gradually derived from the “artificial cultivation and domestication”. Today, we see hundreds of kinds of bananas are derived from artificial domestication. However, in most bananas, the most common one is Huajiao, which is the banana we often eat. However, Huajiao is not a real banana, it is a “second-class” substitute. The reason for this is mainly related to the banana planting crisis half a century ago.
The earliest banana cultivated by “one banana dominates alone” — Rice seven banana (also known as big Mac banana)
If the rice seven banana has not completely disappeared, there will be no Chinese banana at all. The two can’t be compared at all. Even the Chinese banana may not be qualified for shoes. Compared with Huajiao, rice seven banana is the oldest banana. Rice seven banana is also known as “Big Mac banana”. It is characterized by large size, strong fruit flavor, good taste and easy preservation. It is a very good variety. At that time, rice seven banana was like the status of “Aksu” and “Qiuxiang” in today’s apple. It was deeply liked by consumers and could be called the “hegemony” in the banana industry. It seems that rice seven banana was planted all over the world at that time. However, it is a pity that the last batch of rice and banana completely completed its historical mission after they arrived in the United States in 1965. Now, no matter in America or Africa, rice and banana have disappeared.
Why is such a fine variety extinct and few people continue to grow it?
The gradual disappearance of rice seven banana has something to do with an encounter a few years ago, which is a devastating disaster for rice seven banana. At that time, all over the world were pursuing the economic benefits brought by rice seven bananas. In order to expand profits, many planting companies began to excessively increase their production, and adopted the “asexual reproduction” mode in cultivating rice seven bananas. Whether mature rice seven bananas or immature rice seven bananas, their genes are almost identical, and they are clones.
So what is asexual monocloning? Primitive farmers found that if the pulp of a certain rice seven banana tree was very popular, they could dig the root of the tree and transplant it to a nearby open space or path. Within a few years, industrious primitive farmers may produce dozens of plants with the same banana gene. It is precisely because of this cloning mode that the yield of rice seven banana has been continuously improved. At that time, rice and seven bananas all over the world looked exactly the same, including the same taste. “Asexual cloning” breeding mode was also known as the “single planting” mode. Although this cultivation advantage was low cost and high income, it was a wise move, but it was a blessing or a curse. No one expected that this single planting mode was brewing a disaster Catastrophic disaster.
Rice as like as two peas in the world, seven looks like the same appearance and taste, but it seems to be perfect. But it lacks genetic diversity. That is to say, if the seven banana is sick, then the other banana will suffer in a single clone breeding mode. Let’s take an example. In a family with young twins, as long as one child is sick, the other child is also vulnerable to infection. The probability of twins getting sick at the same time is more than 98%. So in general, rice seven banana clone breeding mode, finally let it pay a heavy price.
In the early 20th century, yellow leaf disease began to break out, a large number of rice and seven bananas began to wilt, and the leaves changed to yellow. This disease was caused by the infection of Fusarium oxysporum, a subspecies fungus of the semiophyta. In the early stage of the disease, only the edge of the leaves turned yellow. After the serious development, the yellowing began to gradually expand to the middle ribs, and the petioles softened and bent It droops and finally withers. The pathogen invaded the soil and infected the whole rice seven banana plantation. The subsequent butterfly effect spread to the rice seven banana plantations all over the world. Nearly 80% of the rice seven banana plantations were destroyed. It has to be said that the glorious history of rice seven banana, the earliest banana of “one banana dominates alone”, has ended. From 1965 when the last batch of rice seven bananas arrived in the United States to 2021, rice seven banana has been extinct for 56 years.
2. Huajiao is superior and becomes a substitute, taking the place of rice and seven bananas
Species “asexual single clone breeding mode” let rice seven banana suffered “extermination tragedy”. Looking at the extinction of rice seven banana, human beings began to turn their attention to the development and cultivation of new varieties immediately. In dealing with the destruction of rice seven banana, a new banana variety was found, which has strong resistance and is not easy to be attacked by this fungal virus. After discovering the advantages of this variety, people began to plant it Nowadays, Huajiao occupies half of the 9 million mu banana production area in the world, and has become a dominant variety. However, in taste and taste, Huajiao is far inferior to rice seven banana.
Will Huajiao not be killed In order to avoid repeating the tragedy, people improve the cultivation technology
Some netizens can not help but ask: “rice seven banana appeared in the massacre, Huajiao will not happen this tragedy?” After Huajiao became the dominant variety to replace the rice seven banana, new pathogenic organisms began to attack Huajiao. The most common fungus is black spot, which refers to the black spot on the plant leaves. In the long-term evolution of fungi, Huajiao has lost its resistance to the evolved fungi. In order to prevent Huajiao from being exterminated like rice seven banana, countries all over the world have set up special quarantine systems to disinfect and landfill all the infected fungi one after another to prevent infection and minimize the disease.
China is also making a lot of efforts in cultivating the diversity of banana varieties. For example, red banana is different from Huajiao in that it has delicate pulp, strong storage capacity, low sugar content and high vitamin content. Perhaps in the near future, red banana will replace Huajiao.
For human beings, it is urgent to protect global biodiversity
Through the massacre of rice seven banana, we should sum up the experience and lessons. In today’s view, any kind of epidemic disease may cause fatal consequences for a single variety. Maybe in the next few decades, we will fall into the dilemma that we can no longer buy bananas, although all countries in the world are trying to improve cultivation technology and develop new technology Species diversity, but the real alternatives to bananas are still being studied and cultivated.
With the aggravation of global warming, many crops, such as potatoes, peanuts and other wild species, are on the verge of extinction. In the biodiversity report, at present, one of every four species on the earth is endangered. It’s a pity that this kind of man-made disaster, which could have been avoided, happens every day.
For example, in the 1980s, after the aggravation of marine pollution, 80% of marine life was affected, including 50% of marine species disappeared. That’s a staggering number, more than twice as many as the number of land-based extinctions, and some fish populations have even been reduced by 75%. In addition, coral reefs, mangrove trees and seaweeds are also rapidly decreasing. All living things in the world have the right to exist. We human beings are no different from other species. If the earth’s living things continue to be endangered, this pending problem can not be effectively solved, and we may be unable to protect ourselves in the future.