The moon is the only natural satellite on earth. Since ancient times, human beings have a different feeling for the moon. In ancient times, people didn’t know much about the moon. In the eyes of the ancients, the moon was beautiful and mysterious, with immortals living on it.
However, as human beings enter the era of science and technology, after we have astronomical telescopes, the observed moon is not beautiful, and its surface is covered with large and small craters. After human beings stepped out of the earth, the exploration of the moon was also speeding up, especially in the 1960s and 1970s. Due to the space race between the United States and the Soviet Union, the United States successfully carried out six manned lunar landings, bringing back about 382kg of lunar rocks and samples of local tyrants.
The Soviet Union also carried out three unmanned lunar samples and brought back about 335 grams of samples. Through these samples, scientists have a preliminary understanding of the origin of the moon. How was the moon formed? This problem has puzzled us for a long time, many scientists have put forward a variety of conjectures, such as: the earth capture theory, the earth split theory and so on.
After Apollo landing on the moon, human beings obtained a large number of lunar rock and soil samples. Through the analysis of these samples, we finally put forward a popular theory: asteroid impact theory.
According to this theory, shortly after the formation of the earth, the earth was hit by an asteroid “Theia”, which is about the size of Mars. This impact caused the whole “Theia” to be smashed and a part of the earth’s mantle material to fly. The matter smashed by “Theia” and the matter flew by the earth move around the earth in the universe, and finally merge together under the action of gravity to form the moon.
Although we know the origin of the moon, we don’t know what happened during the evolution of the moon. To understand this, we need to go through the rocks and soil of the moon. Although China’s space industry started late, it develops very fast.
With the great development of China’s space industry, we have the ability to go out of the earth and explore the moon, so we began a series of exploration plans of Chang’e to the moon. On December 8, 2018, chang’e-4 flew to the moon and successfully landed on the back of the moon on January 3, 2019. This is the first time that a human probe landed on the back of the moon, which also shows that China’s lunar landing technology has reached the world’s leading level.
After the completion of the lunar backside landing of chang’e-4, the sampling plan for chang’e-5 landing on the moon began soon, due to the impact of the epidemic. The launch of chang’e-5 was delayed until the end of November. Finally, on November 24, chang’e-5 was successfully launched from Wenchang launch site in Hainan. On November 30, chang’e-5 has entered the circular orbit of the moon and will choose the right time to implement the soft landing on the lunar surface.
At 23:00 on December 1, the chang’e-5 probe successfully landed on the lunar surface, carried out preparations such as solar wing deployment and mechanism unlocking, and carried out sampling as planned. By 4:53 on December 2, the lunar exploration project chang’e-5 lander and riser assembly had completed lunar drilling, sampling and packaging.
According to the plan, chang’e-5 will bring us about 2 kg of lunar rock and soil samples. After these samples are brought back to the earth, we will conduct various studies on them, which will help us learn more about the moon. There are not many 2kg samples of the moon, but there are only so many samples that we need to share with other countries.
Scientists from many countries in the world have made requests to China, hoping to get some lunar soil dug up by chang’e-5. Among these countries, NASA has also made the same request to China, which makes many people feel strange. You know, in the last century, the United States dug back 382 kilograms of lunar rocks and local tyrants. Will they still lack lunar samples?
If not, why do you want some lunar soil samples from China? In fact, it is not difficult to solve this mystery. Let’s have a simple understanding. First of all, we need to understand that although the moon is very close to us and we have the ability to land on the moon for sampling, due to the limited scientific and technological strength of human beings, we can not conduct a comprehensive exploration of the moon and can only conduct exploration and sampling in very limited places.
Apollo program is to carry out manned landing on the moon, and manned landing on the moon is very different from unmanned probe landing on the location selection. The safety of astronauts should be taken into consideration when landing on the moon. We should not choose to land in a relatively dangerous area, but in a relatively flat, safe and geologically stable location.
Most of the lunar surfaces selected by Apollo spacecraft are located in the mid low dimensional lunar sea area on the front of the moon, and the rocks and soil collected are also concentrated in this area. The “age” of this region is concentrated between 3.2 billion and 4.2 billion years old, which is the time of the formation of the early moon.
There is still a long period of geological activity after the formation of the moon. The age of the surface is not the same. Some places have been between 3 billion and 4.2 billion years, while some places are very young, only about 1 billion years. To fully understand the moon, we need lunar rocks and soil of different ages. It is obvious that the time span of lunar samples excavated by the United States is not comprehensive enough.
The landing site chosen by chang’e-5 is located in the area of Mount rumke in the northwest of the lunar front. To the south of it is the largest lunar sea storm ocean. We can see that this location is far away from the landing site of Apollo program.
More importantly, mount rumke is an isolated volcano on the moon. Exploration data show that this volcano is relatively “young” and has rich traces formed by volcanic movement. Its formation time is about 1 billion to 2 billion years. Chang’e-5 landed here and was able to collect very “young” samples of the moon.
These young lunar soil samples collected by chang’e-5 are just the same as those collected by Apollo. The research on these samples collected by chang’e-5 will help us to have a better understanding of the moon. That’s why the United States asked China to share some of the lunar soil collected by chang’e-5.
It is worth mentioning that in 1978, the United States “generously” presented China with a “full gram” of lunar samples. Therefore, after the successful return of chang’e-5, should we also “generously” give them a gram of lunar samples?
After China’s chang’e-5 completed the lunar sampling mission, we finally have our own lunar soil and rock, which makes our country the third country to carry out the lunar sampling return mission after the United States and the Soviet Union.
The main goal of our research on a series of lunar sampling return is to carry out comprehensive development of the moon in the future. We should know that the moon is very rich in resources. In addition to various mineral resources, there is also helium-3, which is very important for future human beings. It is a perfect material for nuclear fusion. Once the controllable nuclear fusion technology is realized in the future, a large amount of helium-3 will be needed, and these resources on the moon can just meet the human demand for helium-3.
Therefore, in the near future, the moon will become an important resource mining place for human beings. On the moon, there will be not only many mining bases, but also lunar cities. Some people on earth will move to live in lunar cities, making the moon a popular planet.