2020 is dogged by bad luck. The year 2020 is not a complete one. The market has not yet completely ended. In July, the whole country has been experiencing heavy rainfall. Especially the south is facing severe floods.
Although natural disasters continue, the pace of science and the exploration of the universe will not stop. I believe many friends know that 2020 is the time window between the earth and Mars, and each time window is the best time for mankind to launch a probe to Mars.
Mars is no stranger to all of us. It is the most explored planet since mankind came out of the earth. Some people may ask, why should we focus on Mars? In fact, the reason is not complicated. First of all, Mars is a neighbor of the earth. Besides Venus, it is the closest planet to the earth.
Secondly, Mars is also an earth like planet in the habitable zone, which has many similarities with the earth. Scientists speculate that long ago, Mars might have been a beautiful ecological planet with life. If so, what is the reason that Mars lost its beautiful ecology, lost its life and became desolate now? This is something scientists really want to understand.
If we understand the reasons for the ecological upheaval on Mars, we may be able to prevent the earth from going to Mars in the future. Because Mars has twice the cycle of revolution as the earth, the distance between the two has been changing. The nearest distance is only 55 million km, while the farthest distance is more than 400 million km. If our probe wants to successfully and quickly go to Mars, it needs to choose the time closest to the earth, which is the time window between Mars and the earth.
Every 780 days, or 26 months, Mars and earth reach their closest point. About two or three months in this time is the window period for us to launch Mars probe, which is to “take the shortest way” to Mars. The period from the end of July to August in 2020 is the closest time window period between Mars and the earth. In this time window period, China will also carry out its first Mars exploration mission.
Every Chinese people understand that China’s space industry started late, but China has been working hard to catch up, and space technology is also advancing at an incredible speed. Especially in the past 10 years, the development speed of China’s space industry has shocked people all over the world. Not only has chang’e-4 achieved its first lunar backside landing mission, but also China’s space station is accelerating.
With the rapid development of space technology, China will not give up on Mars exploration. In the process of Mars exploration, the United States is in the forefront of the world. Our current understanding of Mars is basically derived from the Mars probe of the United States, but the United States will not disclose some important data to the world. Therefore, what we can learn about Mars is not comprehensive, and the really important confidential data will not be disclosed to the outside world.
Mars looks very desolate, but it reveals a lot of mysterious information, especially about life. If China wants to really understand the situation of Mars, it can only send its own probes. If there is something important on Mars, and China does not participate in it in the future, it will be a major regret.
China’s first Mars exploration mission is named “tianwen-1”. What missions will tianwen-1 complete on Mars? China’s Mars exploration program is not ordinary. It can be said that it is the time window of Mars in 2020. Among the various Mars missions participated in by the world, it attracts the attention of the people of the world. The reason is that “tianwen-1” plans to complete the three objectives of circling, landing and inspection in one mission.
Such a feat is the first time in the world Mars exploration program. The U.S. plan to explore Mars was also carried out step by step, and did not dare to complete the three goals of circling, landing and inspection at one time. Of course, the current US space power can also be achieved, but it is difficult to find a second country that wants to achieve these three goals at one time.
Therefore, China’s Mars exploration program is very important. If it is successful, it means that China’s space strength will enter a new stage. The tianwen-1 spacecraft, weighing about 5 tons (including fuel), consists of an orbiter and a lander / Rover combination. The orbiter will provide relay communication links for the rover and conduct its own scientific observation for a year on Mars.
The orbit of scientific observation stage is a polar ellipse orbit. The lander / rover will make a soft landing on the surface of Mars about 2-3 months after the probe’s arrival. The candidate landing site is Utopian plain. Weighing about 240 kg, the solar Rover weighs almost twice as much as the Yutu Rover and is expected to run for about 90 Mars days.
The main mission of “tianwen-1” is to use the orbiter to conduct a comprehensive and extensive survey of the whole Mars, and send the rover to the surface position with scientific research value to conduct a detailed survey with high precision and high resolution. Specifically, the scientific objectives of “tianwen-1” include: (1) mapping the shape and geological structure of Mars; (2) investigating the soil characteristics and water ice distribution on the surface of Mars; (3) analyzing the material composition on the surface of Mars; (4) measuring the climate and environmental characteristics of the ionosphere and the surface of Mars; (5) exploring the physical field (electromagnetic field, gravitational field) and internal structure of Mars.
It took decades for the United States to complete all the above Mars exploration missions, but China has to complete them at one time in the first Mars exploration mission, which is the pride of every Chinese people. It is expected that the “tianwen-1” probe will arrive on Mars around February 2021, and the scientific observation phase will start in April 2021. In addition to “tianwen-1”, NASA’s Mars 2020 “perseverance” probe and UAE’s “Hope” Mars orbiter will also set foot on Mars.
The exploration of Mars is entering a new stage, and Mars may become the second earth suitable for human in the future. As a matter of fact, scientists are constantly increasing their efforts to explore Mars. In addition to finding out the reasons why Mars is now, what is more important is that they expect to carry out a series of modifications in the future to make it the second livable planet in the solar system.
We should know that with the continuous growth of population, the continuous depletion of the earth’s resources and the continuous deterioration of the ecological environment, the future Earth is unable to meet the needs of human survival. Even if the earth’s ecology will not be completely deteriorated in the future, it can still allow human survival, but the growing population pressure still needs us to get out of the earth.
The number of people that the earth can satisfy is about 10 billion, but now the global population is about 7.5 billion, and the growth rate is very fast. It is estimated that in less than 100 years, the population of the earth will exceed 10 billion. At that time, if we are unable to divert from the outer planet, the ecological environment of the earth and the survival of human beings will face a dilemma and crisis.
Therefore, scientists have accelerated the exploration of Mars, hoping to start the transformation of Mars as soon as possible. Only when Mars is transformed, it is suitable for human survival. Although there are countless planets suitable for human survival in the vast universe, due to the influence of distance and speed, the areas that we can explore in the future for a long time may be limited to the solar system.
Without the ability of interstellar navigation, without the interstellar speed such as the speed of light and superluminal speed, it is impossible for us to explore the distant starry sky. Naturally, those natural planets suitable for human survival, we can only look at the stars and sigh. Therefore, Mars is very important for the future of mankind. To some extent, it may determine the continuation and development of human civilization.
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