This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
13.8 billion years ago, a mysterious singularity with infinitely large mass and infinitely small volume exploded, and then the universe was born. After the birth of the universe, all kinds of materials began to form while it was expanding. Through 13.8 billion years of evolution and development, the vast and mysterious universe was created.
One may ask: what are the basic units of the universe? Some people may say that stars or planets are not. The basic unit of the universe is the galaxy. If we stand on the earth and observe the distant stars with telescopes, you will find countless bright spots, most of which are galaxies, nebulae or galaxy clusters.
From the perspective of the solar system or the Milky way, we will think that the basic unit of the sky is stars. But if you zoom in to the vast universe, you will find that stars are so small that they can’t even count as dust. What we see are all kinds of large and small star systems. No one knows how many galaxies there are in the universe, and within the scope of human observation, there are eight of the most strange and mysterious galaxies. Do you know them? The following small make-up with friends to understand.
1、 ESO 381-12 galaxy, ESO 381-12 is located in the bright constellation Centaurus in the southern sky. Its coordinates are 12:44:4.61 s right longitude and – 34 ° 11 ′ 58.48 ″ declination. It is about 270 million light-years away from the earth. ESO 381-12, also known as PGC 42871, belongs to lenticular galaxies, which are intermediate in shape and nature between elliptical and swirling galaxies.
This is a very beautiful lenticular galaxy, which is also very rare in the family of lenticular galaxies. Its origin is still a mystery. Scientists speculate that its formation may be the result of Galaxy collision and merger. The matter of colliding galaxies collided violently, completely changing the appearance of galaxies and the way of future evolution. Such violence is likely to trigger a wave of star birth, leading to the formation of a large number of hot young stars.
2、 NGC 3359 is a spiral nebula in the constellation Ursa Major, about 49 million light-years away from earth. Stars, gas or dust are elongated or drawn into rectangular shapes to form these bright strips. These strips are common in spiral nebulae. Next to NGC 3359 is the bear galaxy, which is a small, metal deficient galaxy, probably NGC The companion of galaxy 3359, the bear galaxy, may be the most lovable Galaxy in the universe. Since the big bang, this dwarf galaxy has been basically dormant, which means that the molecules it may contain have not changed since the rapid expansion of the universe 13.7 billion years ago.
3、 W2246-0526 galaxy, there is a kind of thief Galaxy in the vast universe. Why does it have such a name? In our cognition, the thief is to steal other people’s things for a living, is to let people hate a kind of person. In the universe, most galaxies rely on their own evolution and development, but there are some galaxies that want to get something for nothing, such as thief galaxies.
Galaxies usually have their own “quiet years”, but if they are too close, they may cause some chaos. A few years ago, the Atacama millimeter / submillimeter array telescope (ALMA) in Chile first discovered a bright galaxy called wise j224607.55-052634.9. It’s not a record size galaxy, so why is it so bright? Scientists now believe that the galaxy is “stealing fuel,” driving the energy output of three neighboring galaxies.
W2246-0526 is a well deserved thief Galaxy in the universe by squeezing the neighboring galaxies into new shapes and stealing energy through some special means, and the thief galaxy is also the brightest Galaxy in the universe. Compared with the reality, the thief galaxy is hidden for fear of being discovered. Thief galaxy can be silk to hide their existence, with the brightest energy to show its existence.
4、 Tadpole Galaxy, although the tadpole on earth is very small, the tadpole in space is very big. It is an extragalactic Galaxy bigger than our galaxy. This galaxy has a slender tail. It looks very similar to a tadpole, so people nicknamed it Tadpole Galaxy. Since the Hubble Space Telescope took a clear picture of Tadpole Galaxy in 2002, this “frog larva” in space began to come into our sight.
Tadpole Galaxy is about 300 million light-years away from the earth. From a distance, it looks like a giant “tadpole” swimming in space. This “Tadpole Galaxy” has a tail with a length of 500000 light-years, which is 10 times the span of the Milky way. What causes the galaxy to become a space tadpole? Scientists think it is likely that a big cosmic collision formed “Tadpole Galaxy”.
5、 Andromeda galaxy is no stranger to us. It is the neighbor of the Milky way, about 2.5 million light-years away from the Milky way. The Andromeda galaxy appears to be a spindle shaped elliptical spot in the northeast sky, which is one of the most distant objects visible to the naked eye. It is generally believed that Andromeda is the largest Galaxy in this galaxy group, and its appearance is similar to that of the Milky way. The members of this galaxy group are Andromeda galaxy, Milky Way galaxy, triangularis galaxy and about 50 small galaxies. Based on improved measurement techniques and recent data, scientists believe that there is a lot of dark matter in the galaxy, and the mass fraction of dark matter is the largest in this galaxy group.
The Andromeda galaxy and the Milky way are in the same cluster, with a diameter at least 1.6 times that of the Milky way. Andromeda galaxy is the largest Galaxy in the galaxy group. It is moving towards the Milky way at the speed of 300 kilometers per second. It may collide with the Milky way in 3-4 billion years, and finally form an elliptical galaxy. Spitzer Space telescope observations show that the Andromeda galaxy has nearly a trillion stars, far more than the Milky way.
Scientists are most concerned about the collision and fusion between Andromeda and the Milky Way billions of years later, although many scientists believe that the collision and fusion between the two galaxies will be relatively mild and will not affect the survival of the solar system and human beings. But no one knows what the real situation is. More people think that the collision and fusion of two such huge galaxies may not be as gentle as we think, and it may be very violent. You know, there are supermassive black holes in the center of the two galaxies, and the collision and fusion of black holes will not be calm.
6、 Macs 2129-1, a young “dead” disk galaxy, rotates twice as fast as the Milky way, but it is still not as active as the Milky way. The latest observations from the Hubble Space Telescope show that it has not formed stars for about 10 billion years. For such dead galaxies, scientists are very interested in a class of galaxies. It is easier to find an active galaxy in the universe, but it is too difficult to find such dead galaxies.
7、 Galaxies without dark matter exist in the vast universe. In addition to visible matter, there is also a large amount of dark matter. Dark matter is a very mysterious matter. So far, scientists have not captured it in the universe, nor do they know its properties. Although scientists have not really captured dark matter, there are various signs in the universe that a large number of them are here.
Galaxies are relatively dense places in the universe, and dark matter also exists in all galaxies. However, in 2018, the Hubble Space Telescope observed a very strange galaxy with almost no dark matter, which immediately attracted the attention of astronomers. The amount of dark matter far exceeds the amount of visible matter observed by humans, so it is very rare to find a galaxy without any dark matter.
8、 ESO 137-001 galaxy, located in the constellation triangularis australis, looks like a jellyfish swimming in the stellar ocean. It is a rod-shaped spiral galaxy in which the stars form a spiral shape and the center is a rod-shaped structure. NASA pointed out that the stars were formed by a stream of dust and gas (invisible to the naked eye) from the ESO 137-001 galaxy.
ESO 137-001, about 220 million light-years from earth. It’s heading towards the center of the giant cluster Abell 3627. As it moves toward the center of the cluster, the hot gas inside it is stripped off, producing a tail 260000 light-years long. The tail of the galaxy indicates that star forming sites, including 29 hydrogen ion regions in visible light, are thought to be forming new stars. Two of the X-ray emission areas also indicate the birth of new stars.
ESO 137-001 is passing through a galaxy cluster called Abel 3627. As it moves, gravity from surrounding galaxies pulls it from all directions. The bright blue stripes are being torn off, leaving behind signs of this cosmic crime. Through careful observation, we found that the bright blue stripes are clusters of hot, bright young stars.
The above eight strange galaxies are just representative mysterious galaxies among countless galaxies in the universe. In fact, there are still many strange and mysterious galaxies that have not been found in the universe. With the continuous improvement of human observation technology, the observation range will be wider and more galaxies will be found in the future. At the same time, galaxies beyond our imagination will continue to be discovered. So people often say that in the face of the vast universe, anything is possible. There is nothing we can’t imagine, only what we haven’t seen. This is the universe under human survival.
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