On January 31, 1958, the first man-made satellite was successfully launched, which opened the prelude of man’s march into space. Now 62 years have passed, human science and technology have undergone tremendous changes, and great achievements have been made in space research and exploration.
In many aspects of the exploration of the universe, the exploration of alien civilization has always been a hot direction in the scientific community. Every year, scientists’ cognition of the exploration of extraterrestrial civilization will be improved. Although we have not found any extraterrestrial life and civilization so far, the continuous improvement of our cognition of life and the sharp rise of our cognition of the universe make us more convinced that extraterrestrial civilization exists and that human beings will come into contact with them sooner or later.
In a twinkling of an eye, 2020 is coming to an end. This is an extraordinary year. The virus epidemic has lasted for a whole year, and various natural disasters are constantly emerging, which has brought great impact on human life. Nevertheless, the pace of human science and technology has been moving forward. What important achievements and discoveries will be made in 2020 in the exploration of extraterrestrial life and extraterrestrial civilization? Let’s give a brief introduction to six of them.
1. Venus, one of the eight planets in the solar system, is a neighbor of the earth. The mass and volume of Venus are very close to earth, so scientists call it the sister planet of earth. The earth like planet is so similar to the earth, but the ecological environment on its surface is very different. The environment of Venus is very bad, which can be said to be a purgatory world.
Venus atmosphere is very thick, the main component is carbon dioxide, which leads to the greenhouse effect is particularly severe, the surface temperature reached 460 degrees Celsius. In addition to the high temperature, there is also a layer of sulfuric acid cloud in the atmosphere of Venus, which often rains sulfuric acid, thus aggravating the surface of Venus.
After walking out of the earth, the first planet to be explored is not Mars, but Venus, which is closer to the earth. When the probe reaches the orbit of Venus, we see a terrible purgatory world. The thick atmosphere hinders our detection of the surface of Venus. In addition, the surface environment is too bad for the probe to land on the surface safely.
Even if the landing is successful, it can only survive for a short time and then lose contact. After many attempts, the scientists finally gave up launching a probe to Venus and focused on Mars. Although we didn’t realize the detailed detection of the surface of Venus, we still collected a lot of data about the atmosphere of Venus after many observations.
For a long time, scientists believe that Venus is the preferred target for life. But in September this year, scientists released a big news: phosphine was found in the atmosphere of Venus, which is a rare toxic gas, but this gas is always related to living organisms on earth. Therefore, scientists speculate that there may be bacteria and other microorganisms in the atmosphere of Venus.
2. Omomo may be a masterpiece of alien civilization. On October 19, 2017, omomo rushed into the solar system from Lyra at a speed of about 26 kilometers per second, almost perpendicular to the ecliptic. It is cigar shaped, about 400 meters long and 40 meters wide. It is reddish in color and has a solid surface, but it can not be distinguished from rocks or metals. This is the first time that extrasolar objects have been discovered in the solar system.
At first, scientists thought that Omo was a special celestial body that intruded into the solar system, but with a series of unusual performances after it entered the solar system, scientists realized that things might not be as simple as we thought.
After aomomo entered the solar system, no one imagined that it would slow down because of the gravitational influence of each planet. On the contrary, it has been accelerating since it entered the solar system, and it seems that something is losing it. This makes scientists confused. Harvard University astrophysicist avi lob said that the interstellar visitor may not be a comet, but an alien probe propelled by a light sail.
The light sail is a kind of wide and thin material, which will accelerate under the solar radiation. Many scientists have questioned this. They think that the melting process of hydrogen ice on some objects, similar to rocket engine or other propulsion methods, is not so easy to heat. Therefore, Omo is unlikely to be a masterpiece of alien civilization.
However, in August this year, Lobb once again refuted his point. In a research report, he pointed out that hydrogen ice is easy to be heated. Even in the deep and low temperature state of interstellar space, it may sublimate before omomo enters the solar system, thus gaining acceleration power. The identity of aomomo may always be a mystery, it is constantly away from us, and the observation is becoming more and more difficult. Unless we realize sublight flight technology in the future, maybe we can catch up with it and see what it is.
3. Alien civilization calls us from neighboring star? Exploring the mysterious radio signals in the universe has always been an important way for scientists to find the extraterrestrial civilization. There are a lot of signals in the universe, which are basically from celestial bodies.
Some time ago, some researchers said that they captured a beam of mysterious energy in the radio part of the 980 MHz electromagnetic spectrum, which came from the earth’s nearby star, the nearby star. Bilin, as many friends know, is a neighbor of the solar system, only 4.2 light-years away from us. The alien civilization in three bodies comes from the neighboring star.
According to the current observation data, scientists have found a gas giant planet and a rocky planet 17% larger than the earth’s volume near the nearby star. And this rocky planet is in the habitable zone, which means there may be liquid water on its surface. This mysterious signal comes from bilignus. It is not known whether it is a natural phenomenon of celestial bodies or a greeting from bilignus civilization. More signal data research is needed.
4. Extraterrestrial life may breathe hydrogen. Life on earth needs oxygen to survive. Without oxygen, life on the surface will end. The oxygen content in the universe is only 0.1%, but hydrogen accounts for 92%, so will alien life use hydrogen as the breathing gas?
In May this year, scientists conducted experiments on Escherichia coli and common yeast. In different environments, they can survive without oxygen. If they are put in a flask filled with pure hydrogen or pure helium, they will continue to grow, but the growth rate will slow down.
Through this experiment, we realize that there may be many kinds of life in the universe, and there may be great differences in the life of different planetary environments. Life on earth breathes oxygen, but alien life does not necessarily breathe oxygen. It may be hydrogen. Of course, this is only a conjecture at present. We haven’t found any extraterrestrial life. We don’t know their life forms and their requirements for the environment and atmosphere.
5. Life can survive around the black hole, which is the product of supermassive star explosion and the most powerful object in the universe. In many people’s cognition, black hole is the terminator. It swallows everything and everywhere. As long as the black hole exists, the surrounding objects will be eaten by it, and there will be no life around it.
But in March of this year, scientists published a paper in which they described that planets orbit and are heated by the black hole. Black holes do not suck everything around them, but have a stable orbit. In this orbit, there can be celestial bodies, galaxies and even life.
6. The Milky way may be full of the ocean world, and water is the source of life. Among the material members of life on earth, water occupies an absolute position. 70% of the material of human body is water, which shows the importance of water to life. The earth is a planet rich in liquid water resources. Are there many planets with liquid water in the universe?
Let’s start with the solar system. The only planet with abundant liquid water resources on its surface is earth. However, scientists have found that many planets in the solar system are covered with a lot of water ice, and there may be liquid ocean world under these thick ice layers.
In a study released in June this year, scientists observed 53 exoplanets of similar size to the earth, and analyzed their size, density, orbit, surface temperature, mass, and distance from the star. In the end, the scientists concluded that about a quarter of the 53 planets may have conditions suitable for the existence of an ocean world, indicating that planets with oceans may be very common in the galaxy.
The above six are some discoveries and new insights of scientists on the way to explore alien civilization in 2020. From these we can see that human beings are not alone in the universe. The reason why we still can’t find extraterrestrial life and extraterrestrial civilization is that our technology is still relatively backward and we can’t realize interstellar navigation.
Even with today’s science and technology, the scope of the solar system and planets that can be explored are very limited. At present, only the moon and Mars are actually landed on by human probes, and the rest are only for some orbital exploration at most. When we are really free to explore the solar system one day, we may find that there are signs of life everywhere.