Four billion years ago, Mars might have been an ocean world. Why is it now a desert planet?

The earth has two neighbors, one is Venus, the other is Mars. They are also habitable planets. Theoretically speaking, as long as it is in the habitable zone, it is possible to evolve into an ecological planet and life. However, after walking out of the earth and exploring Venus and Mars respectively, we found that one of them is purgatory planet, the other is desert planet, and there is no life.

Relatively speaking, the environment of Mars is much better than that of Venus, so scientists focus on Mars. Mars looks like a rock red planet. In ancient times, people called it fluorescein or Mars, while in the west they called it Mars.

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Mars and earth together, in addition to the appearance of color has a huge gap, their size is also very obvious. The diameter of Mars is 6794 kilometers, only half the diameter of the earth, less than one seventh of the volume of the earth, and only one ninth of the mass of the earth.

In the early days, astronomers found many crisscross lines on the surface of Mars through astronomical telescopes. At that time, scientists speculated that these lines might be canals, that Mars might also be a living planet, and even that there was a Martian civilization.

With the continuous progress of human science and technology, scientists sent a probe to Mars to uncover its mystery. Since Mars is not too far away from the earth, it only takes about half a year to launch the probe in the Martian window.

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When the probe reached Mars orbit, it saw the surface of Mars for the first time. Only at this time did scientists know that there were no canals, no oceans, no life or civilization on the surface of Mars. The whole Mars is covered with red sand. It’s a dry desert planet.

In order to explore more secrets of Mars, the rover landed on Mars, closer to the surface, so that we can learn more about Mars. Although the surface of Mars is a desert world with no ocean, a lot of gullies, canyons and basins have been found on the surface of Mars through the continuous exploration of the Mars rover. These places are obviously washed by water.

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These major discoveries have made us more interested in the history of Mars. Scientists believe that early Mars, like the earth, was a beautiful ecological planet with oceans all over the world. It may even have given birth to early primitive life.

This result is in line with the identity of Mars as a habitable planet. Scientists have always believed that if the planet in the habitable zone, the earth, could form an ocean and give birth to life 4 billion years ago, Mars should be able to do the same. And according to its position, Mars is farther away from the sun. It should have cooled and formed oceans earlier than the earth 4 billion years ago.

Water is the source of life. Since Mars was able to form an ocean and become a beautiful ecological planet 4 billion years ago, life should also be born in theory. But why is it that the earth has been full of life since then, and life has gradually evolved to the birth of human beings, while Mars has become a lifeless desert planet?

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Scientists have also put forward different conjectures about the change of Mars from an ecological planet to a desolate desert planet. Some scientists believe that a huge planet may have hit Mars, causing the disappearance of Mars’ magnetic field. Without the protection of the magnetic field, the Martian atmosphere is constantly losing, and finally the ocean on the surface is also losing, becoming a desert planet step by step.

The above conjecture is not without any basis. Scientists’ basis is the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. As for the formation of this asteroid belt, the common view of scientists is that there was once a planet here, and then it smashed into a lot of debris to form the present asteroid belt. And the reason that this planet will shatter is probably that it collided with Mars.

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However, the above conjecture doesn’t make sense. If Mars was once hit by a planet, why did the impacted planet become debris while Mars was ok?

In addition to this conjecture, more scientists believe that the transformation of Mars from an ocean world to a desert world may be related to the natural cooling of the Martian core. Scientists generally believe that Mars had a magnetic field in its early days. Later, the disappearance of the magnetic field led to the loss of liquid water in the atmosphere and surface, which turned Mars into a desert planet.

So why does Mars’ magnetic field disappear? Some scientists believe that it was the impact of celestial bodies and disappeared, while others believe that it was the natural cooling of the core. This view is supported by more scientists. As we said earlier, the mass and volume of Mars are very small compared with that of the earth, and the existence of magnetic field completely depends on the movement of the core.

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Rocky planets are mainly composed of three layers, the outermost layer is the crust, the middle is the mantle layer, and the most central position is the core. The crust is the lithosphere, from the mantle there is the flow of liquid material, we call it magma. The inner core is a world of magma, and the inner core is divided into two layers, the innermost is a solid structure composed of iron and nickel, and the outer layer is magma.

The flow of magma drives the movement of the core, which produces a magnetic field. Due to the large mass and volume of the earth, the movement of the core can be maintained all the time. However, due to the small mass and volume of Mars, its core can not keep long-term movement and gradually cools down. As the core cools, its magnetic field becomes weaker and weaker until it disappears.

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Without the protection of the magnetic field, the atmosphere and liquid water on the surface will be continuously carried away by the solar wind, and eventually become a desolate desert planet. Although such a result makes us feel sorry, but from the perspective of human beings, such a result is very beneficial to human beings. If Mars had the same mass as earth, the magnetic field would have been there all the time.

With the protection of magnetic field, Mars will not become a desert planet, and the possibility of birth of life will be very high. After a long period of evolution, it is possible that intelligent life will eventually be born and further grow into a Martian civilization. If there are two civilizations in the solar system, once they both go out of the parent star and develop to the interstellar, then in order to compete for the resources of the solar system, the Mars civilization and the earth civilization may break out the interstellar war, which will bring unpredictable consequences.

Now Mars has become a desert planet. It used to be an ecological planet and had a lot of water resources. This is a very good ecological foundation. As long as human beings make further progress in science and technology in the future, maybe we can restore the magnetic field of Mars. After a series of transformation, Mars will be able to reproduce the style of 4 billion years ago, become a beautiful planet again, and become a new home for human beings.

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