In this paper, the author participated in the series of soliciting articles of “hundred science” and “great basic science”
Human civilization can have the present achievements, can go out of the earth to explore the universe, and can constantly uncover the mysteries of the world, relying on the continuous progress of science and technology. Since mankind entered the era of scientific and Technological Development hundreds of years ago, human civilization has also ushered in a period of rapid development, and the emerging scientific theory is the guarantee to promote the rapid progress of human civilization.
In the hundreds of years of scientific development, there are many scientific theories, most of which are still within the scope of people’s understanding and can be contacted by people. However, there are four proven scientific theories that are not. Each of them is hard for people to accept and completely subverts people’s cognition. Now let’s take a look at the four scientific theories.
1、 Superposition state in quantum mechanics. I believe many people have heard about quantum mechanics. And quantum mechanics is also the greatest scientific research project in the 21st century. Quantum mechanics mainly studies the mysteries of the micro field, and reveals the essence of the world through the research of the micro field. There are many researches in quantum mechanics that are hard to accept, subverting people’s cognition, and superposition state is one of them.
Superposition state, or superposition state, refers to the state obtained by the normalized linear combination of several quantum states of a quantum system. A simple understanding is that two events that could not exist together in the macro world, such as life and death, may exist at the same time in the quantum world.
If we put a cat in a sealed box and shoot the box with a gun, the trigger of the gun is pulled by atomic decay, then we can’t know whether the cat is dead or alive, because whether the atomic decay is a random event. In quantum mechanics, we call the cat’s state the superposition of death and life.
If it is in the macro world, there can only be one cat’s state, either alive or dead, it is impossible for the two to coexist. In our common sense, top and bottom, left and right, life and death are mutually exclusive things. Everything has two sides. In the traditional mechanical world, the two sides of things can’t exist at the same time. In the same time and space, there can only be one state. For example, you can’t say you are dead when you are alive. But in quantum mechanics, superposition states allow the opposite to exist at the same time, your living state and your dead state to exist at the same time.
Maybe many people think that this is not very absurd? How could such a thing exist? But scientists have proved the correctness of superposition state theory through quantum mechanics experiments. The famous experiment is the double slit interference experiment we did in high school. When we carry out the double slit interference experiment of a single electron, the interference fringes of this electron are left on both slits. Once we use a special instrument to observe the electron, the interference fringes disappear.
The explanation for this is as follows: when we do not observe, the electron has volatility, so it can disperse and leave stripes; once we start to observe, a photon hits the electron, and the electron has a certain position, showing particle nature, and can travel in a straight line without interfering with the two slits. When not observed, because the electron has no definite position, the electron is in the superposition state of various positions, and human observation makes the electron push out the superposition state.
This experiment shows people an incredible conclusion: things in our world are randomly generated. When they are not observed by us, they are in a random state. Only when they are observed, they show certain rules. For example, when we do not look up at the moon, the moon can be in any position, and it can not exist. Only when we look up at the moon will it be in a fixed position. Superposition state seems very absurd, but it is a confirmed scientific theory in quantum mechanics, which is difficult for many people to accept and understand.
2、 In quantum mechanics, there is another tunneling effect which subverts people’s cognition. Quantum tunneling refers to the quantum behavior that microscopic particles such as electrons can penetrate or pass through the potential barrier, although the height of the potential barrier is greater than the total energy of the particles. In classical mechanics, this is impossible, but quantum mechanics theory can give a reasonable explanation.
Let’s give an example. For example, we all know that particles have a certain probability to pass through the wall, while macro things are composed of basic particles. For example, a person is also composed of basic particles. Theoretically speaking, a person also has a certain probability to pass through the wall.
But have you ever seen such a thing in the real world? Of course, I haven’t seen it. The scenes passing through the wall only appear in some science fiction works or fictional films and TV works. The real world is impossible, but the tunneling effect of quantum mechanics tells us that there is a certain probability that people can pass through the wall, but the probability is very small and negligible.
Some people estimate that the probability of a person passing through the wall is 10 ^ – 100 order of magnitude by establishing the steady-state Schrodinger equation. Many people may not have an intuitive understanding of this number. Let’s use a simpler principle to explain that if you hit the wall once a second, and wait for the universe to be destroyed hundreds of millions of times, you can successfully pass through the wall once. The probability is as small as zero, but the non-zero probability is real.
3、 What is the most mysterious mystery in the universe? I believe many people will say that it is the mystery of the origin of the universe. Yes, scientists want to understand how the universe was born? Modern science calls the origin of the universe the big bang theory. It is speculated that 13.8 billion years ago, a singularity with infinitely large mass and infinitely small volume had a big bang, thus giving birth to the universe.
Is the universe expanding from a point with almost no volume after the big bang? This kind of thing completely subverts people’s cognition. Many people doubt the authenticity of the big bang, and are not willing to believe that such a vast universe came from a mysterious singularity big bang. However, the big bang theory is supported by many evidences, such as cosmic microwave background radiation, Hubble red shift, cosmic isotropy, cosmic element abundance and so on.
Although there are still many unsolved mysteries about the origin of the universe, the current big bang theory is the best theory to explain the birth and evolution of the universe. All our research and exploration of the universe are based on the big bang theory. If future scientists find that there are other theories about the origin of the universe, all the existing theories on the study of the universe are possible It’s going to turn over and start over.
4、 Light speed limit theory, in people’s common sense, the speed of an object can be continuously accelerated without limit, and it is with the help of science and technology that human beings have achieved speed breakthroughs one by one, so that they can travel all over the earth and get out of the earth. However, the development of science has put a shackle on speed, that is, the theory of speed limit of light.
According to Einstein’s theory of relativity, the speed of any mass object can only be infinitely close to the speed of light, but cannot reach or even exceed it. The reason why photons can reach the speed of light is that photons have no mass. Although the theory of speed limit of light is hard to accept, it has been proved by many experiments. For example, no matter how powerful an accelerator we make, it can accelerate protons to 99.99999% of the speed of light. Even adding a few more nines after the decimal point, it is impossible to accelerate protons to the speed of light.
The confirmation of the theory of speed limit of light makes many people worry about the future of human beings. We should know that the future of human beings must be in the universe, but if the speed of the spaceship can only be infinitely close to the speed of light, the scope we can explore in the face of the vast universe is very limited. For example, the diameter of the Milky way is 200000 light-years, and it will take 200000 years to travel at the speed of light. The theory of light speed limit also means that human beings may never be able to get out of the Milky way.
The universe is still expanding at superluminal speed, and galaxies are moving away from each other. In the future, we may not be able to observe any galaxies and celestial bodies. The theory of light speed limit will limit the future of human beings, so is the speed of light really unable to reach or break through? Of course, scientists don’t believe in this evil. Although numerous experiments have proved that the speed of a mass object can only be infinitely close to the speed of light, scientists are still carrying out research in the hope of breaking through the speed limit of light through other ways, so as to realize the dream of future human beings’ interstellar navigation.
Each of the above four proven scientific theories is beyond people’s cognition. Although it is hard for people to accept for a while, they are correct in the current human scientific system. Of course, science and technology are constantly developing forward. The correct scientific theory may not be correct in the future. Human beings can constantly create miracles and constantly develop forward by constantly breaking the Convention and breaking the previously thought impossible things.
With the rapid development of human science and technology, there will be more incredible scientific theories in the future. At the same time, more scientific theories will be accepted and understood by people. Only with the continuous updating and advancement of science, can human civilization make continuous progress and finally stand on the top of the pyramid of cosmic civilization and become the overlord of the universe.
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