In the future, with the increase of population and the demand for resources, human beings will undoubtedly step into the interstellar journey, and the first stop of the journey is likely to be Mars. Scientists suggest that the transformation of the Martian environment can be divided into three steps. First, we need to reconstruct the Martian magnetic field. Second, we need to form an ecosystem. Finally, we need to form the earth’s environment.
How to restart the magnetic field?
In fact, Mars was almost the same as the earth three billion years ago, but the extinction of the magnetic field led to the evaporation of the Martian atmosphere, so now Mars is desolate. So how to restart the Martian magnetic field? Keeping the Martian atmosphere alive is a key step in transforming Mars.
An asteroid is transported to Mars to reactivate the Martian metal core, so as to reconstruct the Martian magnetic field. But whether this method can be effective or not is still lack of theoretical support.
A “magnetic pole satellite” is deployed above the Lagrange point between the sun and Mars, which is a high-power magnetic field generator. It can protect the Martian atmosphere from the impact of high-energy particles deflecting the sun on the Martian atmosphere. This method is feasible, but we don’t know how much power it takes to deflect the solar wind.
If Ceres satellite is placed in orbit around Mars, theoretically speaking, the gravity of large objects around Mars can act as a mixer on the core of Mars, which can melt and activate the frozen core of Mars again, thus activating the magnetic field of Mars.
Create artificial magnetic fields only in habitable areas. A strong electromagnet can be placed in the habitable area to generate a magnetic field to protect the colonists from the harmful effects of solar radiation. This method is highly feasible and can be realized by the existing technical means.
If we want to escape the influence of solar radiation, some people suggest that we can build settlements under Mars, and the thickness of Martian soil itself will be a good protection against radiation, but this greatly restricted the activities or work of the colonists.
Forming an ecosystem
The formation of the so-called ecological environment system is the formation of an oxygen free biosphere on a desolate Mars surface. To form this oxygen free biosphere, Mars needs sufficient liquid water and the atmosphere can block ultraviolet rays. When the density and thickness of the atmosphere increase, it can not only reduce the ultraviolet radiation, but also produce the greenhouse effect and increase the surface temperature of Mars.
When the surface temperature of Mars increases, it can melt the water ice in the Arctic, or even the ice in the permafrost, thus partially solving the problem of liquid water.
Forming the earth’s environment
When the ecosystem formation stage is over, it will enter into the earth environment formation stage. The first step of the earth environment formation stage is to introduce microorganisms from the earth in some places with better conditions on Mars. The first batch of introduced photoautotrophs must be so-called photoautotrophs, which can use sunlight as energy and do not need complex organic matter in the process of metabolism.
Some microbes can change the composition of the Martian atmosphere, especially the amount of nitrogen. But plants need to be introduced to increase the oxygen content in the air so that humans can survive on Mars.
It may take centuries for animals to be introduced to make Mars more earth like.
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