For human beings, there has been a threat since ancient times, which seems to have never changed in human history. It is infectious diseases. Although with the development of social economy and the progress of science, human beings now master advanced medical technology, many countries are unprepared after the outbreak of new coronavirus. This super virus has caused great panic in the world. Even if countries have developed vaccines, it is still frightening!
The picture shows the Black Death painting the victory of death
The “Black Death”, more terrifying than the new crown, killed 40% of Europeans in the middle ages
The black death is more serious than the new coronavirus
According to incomplete statistics, the new coronavirus that ravages the world has so far infected nearly 100 million people, resulting in 2 million deaths. It is worth mentioning that the spread of the new coronavirus is very fast, and it will be upgraded and mutated. Infection patients with persistent high fever symptoms, accompanied by cough, fatigue, elderly patients with basic diseases will soon have dyspnea, serious cases will appear coagulation dysfunction. In addition to human to human transmission, the virus can also be transmitted between animals. On December 6, 2020, San Diego wildlife park announced the closure of the zoo. The zoo said that the gorillas in the zoo were infected with the new coronavirus. In addition, the United Kingdom, Japan, Belgium and other countries also appeared pet cats and dogs and other animals infected with the new coronavirus news.
Some netizens can’t help asking: “is the new coronavirus the most terrible plague so far?” The answer is not that the black death, which appeared in the history of human development, is more serious than the new coronavirus. At that time, the plague killed 25 million Europeans, accounting for 40% of the total European population at that time. In terms of the number of deaths, the black death is 10 times more serious than the new coronavirus. It is a very serious plague. The Europeans in the Middle Ages named it “great plague”, “great death” or “great disaster”.
Black death, an ancient infectious disease, is caused by Yersinia pestis. Its clinical manifestations include bubonic plague, pneumonic plague, and hemorrhagic plague. Among them, bubonic plague is the most common, usually characterized by fever and local lymphadenopathy, with an incubation period of 1 to 6 days. The black death left a huge psychological shadow and trauma to Europeans.
The picture shows a painting of the black death
2. The Black Death spread from Central Asia to all parts of Europe, and Europeans experienced the “final trial”
In the history of human development, some viruses are more severe than the new coronavirus. This virus is the black death, also known as plague, which is the most serious plague so far. There are many theories about the origin of the black death. For example, some scholars believe that the Black Death plague originated in Central Asia. In 1347, when the Mongolian army attacked Dharma, because of the tenacious resistance of the Dharma garrison, the Mongolian army suffered serious losses. In anger, the Mongolian army began to throw the bodies infected with the plague into the city with a catapult. It did not take long for the army in the city People and people were infected with the plague one after another. The whole city of CAFA was completely occupied, and the Italians living there had to flee back to their hometown. From then on, the Black Death spread from CAFA to all parts of Europe.
The picture shows the battle of Kafa
In September 1347, Italy was the first stop for the black death to arrive in Europe. Italians who fled to their hometown from CAFA never dreamed that they would bring this plague to their own country. The next year, the whole of Italy fell. In 1348, the Black Death swept through Paris and attacked Britain. In 1350, the Black Death conquered European countries. At that time, almost all Europeans were infected with the disease. At the beginning of the disease, people would feel throat and lung discomfort, chest pain, and hematemesis. On the third day of the disease, serious cases would die. The plague ravaged European countries. For the Europeans at that time, the plague disaster was hard to describe. It seemed that in their eyes, the disaster was the punishment brought by God.
In addition, some researchers believe that the Black Death originated in Northwest China. In 1334, a large-scale plague of black death broke out in Hebei, China, which killed nearly 90% of the people. So far, the black death began to spread in Asia, and then spread to Europe along the Silk Road with merchants, leading Europeans into the plague of black death, Even animal husbandry, pigs, cattle, chickens and goats have been infected and a large number of them have died. This serious problem has led to the shortage of wool in the whole European continent and greatly damaged its vitality.
The picture shows a painting of the black death
Why can the Black Death spread so rapidly in Europe?
Many people are puzzled that the development of European Society in the middle ages should have been brilliant, why the plague was not effectively controlled? On the contrary, there is a large-scale spread? In fact, as far as the black death itself is concerned, this kind of Yersinia pestis is highly infectious, and there are many ways of transmission. In the middle stage, it can be infected to a new host simply by sneezing or coughing. Of course, it can also be transmitted through skin contact. In other words, at the time of the Black Death pandemic, Europeans can be infected with this plague in almost all ways Life threatening diseases.
In addition, the scientific strength of Europe at that time was weak, and Europeans did not have a deep understanding of the pathogenesis and transmission mode of this plague. In addition, the streets and alleys of Europe were dirty, messy, with corpses everywhere. People’s living environment was extremely poor, infrastructure was imperfect, and medical treatment level was limited. The black death was not effectively curbed at that time.
The picture shows the Black Death painting the victory of death
How did Europeans escape the nightmare of the black death in the days of plague?
In this plague war, Europeans found that the black death was particularly keen on densely populated cities, and the messy living environment became a paradise for mice and fleas. People were used to this way of life, but did not realize that this was the “hotbed” for brewing the black death. Seeing a steady stream of relatives dying from the plague, Europeans began to try to find a way to cure the black death.
1. Doctor beak changes the Black Death
In order to fight against the black death, many doctors are helpless. Some experienced senior doctors think that they should think about how to protect themselves before treating the black death, so a tight fitting suit comes out. Wearing such protective equipment can effectively reduce doctors’ contact with pathogens, which also gives many doctors the confidence to wear This protective equipment was named doctor beak. With the help of these doctors, the transmission rate of the Black Death gradually decreased. The “beak” of doctor beak also became the rudiment of masks.
The picture shows doctor beak
Religious change movement
When the Black Death swept across the European continent, many people had thought to curb its spread through religious activities, and stop the plague by means of confession and prayer, but all of these were of no help. Even the church leaders were helpless. From the religious change, people realized that their destiny was in their own hands, not in the hands of God. Therefore, through the religious change, Europeans had a clear understanding and began to look for new ways to treat the black death.
The picture shows religious believers trying to change the black death
Medical isolation began with the black death
Almost for a moment, the haze of Black Death enveloped the whole Britain. The villagers in yam village built high walls with stones to isolate the whole village from the outside world. No one was allowed to escape from it. This was the earliest way of self isolation in human history. Without effective treatment, all the villagers in yam village died in self isolation, and their sacrifice was successful After stopping the spread of the black death to other places, European countries followed suit. Some cities even set up roadblocks and dug trenches around the isolation area to prevent people from entering and leaving. Gradually, this kind of isolation successfully blocked the spread of the black death.
The picture shows the isolation area separated by high wall
How did the black death, which ravaged Europe, disappear in the end?
1. The Black Death entered a low period
After the black death was rampant in Europe, it soon entered a low period. Due to the extremely high death rate of black death, nearly one third of Europeans died of the disease. The Europeans who can survive are partly cured after being infected and have acquired immunity. The other is that they have antibodies and are not easy to be infected by the pathogen of the black death. In addition, a large number of hosts died after infection, the population density was not enough to spread, the infection was interrupted, and the Black Death gradually faded out of people’s vision.
The large-scale invasion of Asian mice solved the European plague to a great extent
When the Asian Rattus norvegicus invaded Europe, the native Rattus nigra in Europe began to fight back. The biggest difference between Rattus norvegicus and Rattus nigra is that Rattus norvegicus carries a unique plague – “Yersinia”. The carrier of this pathogen is ceratophylla, which is also a kind of black death. However, ceratophylla is different from the “Xenopsylla cheopis” on Rattus nigra. This flea is very loyal to Rattus norvegicus Even if this Rattus norvegicus died, they would look for other Rattus norvegicus of the same kind, not humans. With the arrival of these Rattus norvegicus, the “Black Death” that ravaged Europe for hundreds of years began to weaken!
The picture shows Rattus norvegicus
Changing urban health and improving infrastructure construction
As the incidence of the Black Death gradually declined, Europeans began to improve their health habits. Before that, the streets of many European cities were full of sewage and garbage, and people didn’t take a bath all the year round. European countries realized this problem and began to strengthen the construction of basic health facilities, such as digging spacious sewers and paying attention to the treatment of garbage. With the disappearance of urban environment, the Black Death epidemic was gradually effectively controlled.
After the Black Death disappeared in Europe, human beings began to constantly sum up experience and lessons. In the process of fighting against persistent infectious diseases, it is particularly important to do a good job in self isolation and maintain good personal hygiene habits. Especially in today’s new coronavirus has not been completely eliminated, we should be vigilant all the time, reduce the aggregation, and let it completely disappear in 2021.
Some people ask: if the new coronavirus is left alone, will it lead to the extinction of human beings? In fact, it can be seen from this article that even the black death, which killed one third of the whole European population at that time, did not slow down the pace of European development and even became extinct. Moreover, in today’s sound medical system, as long as we work together, we will be able to overcome the new crown.