After entering the industrial age, mankind has formally embarked on the road of scientific and technological development. In more than 200 years, the development of science and technology of human beings has been very fast, and the leaps of science and technology have made great achievements.
With the help of science and technology, human beings walked out of the earth and saw the vastness of the universe. In front of the universe, the earth is small, so is human beings. In the vast universe, scientists believe that alien civilization exists, and the strength of different alien civilizations must be different, so how to measure the hierarchical strength of a civilization?
To this end, in 1654, astronomer Nicolas caldashov proposed the concept of civilization level. Kardashov divided the civilization of the universe into three levels according to the degree of mastering energy. Later, astrophysicist Carl Sagan put forward a formula to calculate the civilization index.
The key to determine a civilization level in the formula is the average power, that is, the mastery and application intensity of energy. The more powerful the application energy is, the more powerful the average power will be, and the higher the civilization level will be. According to this formula, the average power of the earth civilization is about 2 x 10 ^ 13 watts, which is a very low value. According to this standard, human beings can only be regarded as 0.73 civilization.
Kardashov divided the civilization of the universe into three levels, and later scientists extended it to seven levels. Even if it is expanded to seven levels, the current strength of human beings is still 0.73 level, which shows that the level of energy mastered by human beings is still very low.
In fact, it’s easy for us to understand that human beings have been studying and exploring the application of fossil energy for hundreds of years since they entered the era of science and technology. Although we continue to update and upgrade fossil energy, so that human science and technology has achieved a leap forward development, no matter how powerful fossil energy is, it can only be regarded as a low-level energy, and the upper limit of energy level is very low.
If we want to upgrade, we need a higher level of energy, and nuclear fusion energy is a higher level than fossil energy. According to the assumption of scientists, the first level civilization is the primary civilization of the planet, which can freely traverse the parent galaxy. To achieve this, we need to master the controllable nuclear fusion technology.
The second level civilization has the ability of stellar navigation, and can shuttle between different star systems. To achieve such a speed, it must need a lot of energy. In addition to stellar navigation, other aspects of science and technology also need huge amounts of energy. Although our controllable nuclear fusion can provide huge amounts of energy, with the improvement of civilization level, from the first level to the second level, ordinary nuclear fusion energy can no longer meet the needs.
Nuclear fusion is a universal energy model in the universe, which is mainly reflected in stars. Star is a kind of universal celestial body in the universe, which is essentially equivalent to a huge nuclear fusion reactor. For a stellar system, 99.86% of its mass is concentrated in the central stellar body, so it can produce the most powerful nuclear fusion energy.
Our sun is also a star with continuous nuclear fusion, which is a natural super fusion reactor. As long as we can make use of the energy of solar fusion, we don’t need to worry about the energy demand in the second stage of civilization. Even if human beings become the first stage of civilization, the demand for energy will become more and more huge, and the demand can’t be met by relying on the earth’s resources.
At this time, we also need the energy of the sun to meet the development needs of human science and technology, so how to better use the solar fusion energy? In 1959, astronomer Freeman Dyson proposed the concept of Dyson sphere. He believed that when a civilization developed to a certain extent, it would build a giant structure near the main star to collect energy. This giant structure wrapped the star, which scientists called Dyson sphere.
The ultimate Dyson sphere is able to wrap the star completely, thus absorbing 100% of the energy from the fusion of the star. However, the resources needed to build a Dyson sphere of this level are enormous. The resources of all planets and asteroids in a stellar system can’t be combined to produce a Dyson sphere of this level. To achieve this goal, we need at least the second level civilization or the third level civilization.
So for human beings, when we become a first-class civilization, how to build a simple Dyson ball? It takes huge resources to build a Dyson sphere. Even a simple version of Dyson sphere needs the resources of at least one planet. At this time, scientists thought of mercury, which is closest to the sun. Maybe they could tear it down to build a Dyson sphere.
Mercury is the closest planet to the sun, and its material density is very high. It is composed of about 70% metal and 30% silicate. It can be seen that most of the material on mercury can be used as raw materials for building the Dyson sphere. Stuart Armstrong, a physicist at Oxford University, pointed out that in the near future, human beings should tear down mercury to make a Dyson ball to wrap the sun. He also put forward an interesting plan.
The first step of this plan is to establish a mining site on mercury, through which the material on mercury can be mined and refined; the second step is to launch the extracted materials into the sun’s predetermined orbit; the third step is to use these materials to make solar collectors in orbit; the fourth step is to collect solar energy to supply the whole circulation system It’s a lot of energy.
This kind of circulation system is intelligent. As long as the initial work is completed, we can use the energy provided by the solar collector to continuously make our own copies on mercury. This kind of circulatory system can copy itself continuously, make use of the resources on mercury to continuously improve and expand the sphere of Dyson until the whole mercury is demolished.
According to scientists’ estimation, as long as such a circulation system is built on mercury, it will be completely automated, and mercury can be demolished in decades. With the same system, we can also tear down other planets and expand the Dyson sphere on other planets, until all the resources of the whole solar system except the earth are used to build the Dyson sphere.
Can this idea be realized? The core technology of this idea is a highly self replicating intelligent robot. The current human artificial intelligence technology is developing rapidly, I believe that in the near future, intelligent robots will come into people’s lives.
So it’s not too difficult to make an intelligent robot with self mining replication. In theory, this idea can work. Of course, as we have said before, even if the planets and asteroids in the whole solar system are completely removed, we can not make a complete version of the Dyson sphere. We can only build a simple version. Even so, the solar energy absorbed by the simple version of Dyson sphere can meet the energy needs of the first and second stage of human civilization.
When human beings become more powerful, we can go to other galaxies to exploit resources, constantly expand our Dyson spheres, and even build multiple Dyson spheres in other star systems in the same way. In this way, the huge amount of energy provided by us can fully meet the needs of human beings to upgrade to a higher civilization.
Of course, the energy of solar nuclear fusion can not make the human civilization level rise all the time. The energy of nuclear fusion level is not the most powerful energy in the universe. On top of it are antimatter, dark matter and other greater energy.