The planet where human beings live is called the earth, and the galaxy where the earth lives is called the solar system. The sun is the core of the solar system, and its mass accounts for 99.86% of the total mass of the solar system. The role of the sun is not only to rely on strong gravity to bind the eight planets firmly in stable orbits, but also to bring light and heat to the planets in the solar system.
According to the different distances between planets and the different ecological environment on the planet, the temperature is naturally different. For example, the planets in the habitable zone are Venus, earth and Mars. Only the earth has the right temperature, while the other two planets, Venus is too hot and Mars is cold. Of course, the surface temperature of Venus is too high, not only because it is closer to the sun than the earth, but also because of the atmosphere of Venus.
As we all know, the earth is not only the only living planet in the solar system, but also a civilized planet. The earth is able to give birth to life and human beings, can not do without the sun’s light and heat. It is with the light and energy that the sun brings to the earth that the earth has life and the later human beings. In a sense, the sun is the mother of life on the earth and the mother of human beings.
After the birth of mankind, there is a strong worship for the sun, and many tribes regard the sun as a totem. Perhaps in the eyes of the ancients, the sun is the place where the gods live, which is sacred and inviolable, but with the continuous progress of human civilization, especially after entering the era of science and technology. We have a new understanding of the sun, and know that it is actually a star in the universe, and its internal nuclear fusion reaction takes place all the time.
Although many people know that the sun is a star, and the reason why it glows and heats is because of its internal nuclear fusion reaction, few people know how the heat of the sun is transferred to the earth? Before human beings walked out of the earth, their cognition of temperature and space was limited. At that time, many people would think that the sun could bring light and heat to the earth, so the solar system outside the earth should also be full of sunshine and warmth.
However, when human beings walked out of the earth, they found that the space environment is very different from what we imagined. The sun is not a place where the sun is warm, but a place full of darkness and cold. In particular, the temperature in space is as low as minus 270 degrees Celsius, which is close to absolute zero. So many people have such a question: why is the temperature of space so low? How does the sun’s heat transfer to the earth?
In fact, to understand these problems, we need to have a general understanding of temperature and temperature transfer. I believe many friends know that the essence of temperature is the thermal motion of molecules. When the molecular motion inside a substance intensifies, the temperature will increase. When the molecular thermal motion decreases, the temperature will decrease. This is also the reason why there is no upper limit but a lower limit in theory. The reason is that when the molecule is theoretically stationary, the temperature will be as low as the lowest, which is what we usually call the absolute temperature. However, from the perspective of quantum mechanics, the motion of molecules can not be completely static, and the natural temperature can not really reach absolute zero, so it can only be infinitely close.
We understand the nature of temperature. What about the transmission of temperature? The transmission of temperature is naturally inseparable from these particles in the micro world, and the motion of these particles will continue to transmit the temperature. We can feel the rise of temperature on the earth. It is precisely because the molecules in the air and the molecules in the matter continuously transfer the heat to the object that the object has the temperature and the human body can feel the temperature.
The sun is a star, its center is always undergoing hydrogen nuclear fusion, and the energy generated by fusion continuously radiates outward to the surface of the sun. Therefore, the temperature of the sun can reach about 6000 degrees Celsius, while the internal temperature is as high as 20 million degrees Celsius. The heat energy of the sun comes from the reaction of nuclear fusion inside the sun. The heat radiation produced by nuclear fusion can diffuse around at the speed of light through electromagnetic waves.
When the radiation of the sun diffuses around, it also diffuses heat around. But why is space still so cold? The reason is that space is a state very close to vacuum, in which the density distribution of matter is very low, and the distance between molecules is very large. Because there is not enough material, the temperature produced by the solar radiation energy is difficult to gather and transfer, so the temperature is naturally very low.
But when the solar radiation reaches the earth’s atmosphere, the situation is completely different. There are two strong protective layers around the earth, one is a strong magnetic field, the other is a thick atmosphere. When the solar radiation enters the earth’s atmosphere, the thermal effect will be reduced. At the same time, the atmosphere absorbs the heat generated by the solar radiation, saves the heat, and then feeds back to the earth’s surface, so that the earth’s surface has a suitable temperature.
If there is no atmospheric barrier and preservation function, then the sun’s radiation will be directly on the earth’s surface, resulting in a great temperature difference. The temperature is very high during the day and very low at night. For example, the moon is such a case. The temperature is very high during the day and night, because there is no atmosphere to buffer and preserve the thermal radiation.
In addition to the atmosphere, the earth also has a strong magnetic field, which can also effectively distort and resist solar radiation, allowing the sun to reach the earth with an appropriate amount of radiation, bringing the earth a suitable temperature. The heat of the sun is transferred to the earth in this way. It is precisely because the earth has a very dense material distribution and the molecules are very close to each other that the heat generated by solar radiation can be effectively transferred.
That’s the heat the sun delivers to the earth in its natural state. Under normal circumstances, the earth has atmosphere and magnetic field protection, the temperature will be in a more appropriate state. However, in recent decades, we will find that the temperature of the earth is getting higher and higher, and the global temperature is rising, which has seriously affected people’s life.
The main reason for this situation is that the production of human industry emits a lot of carbon dioxide, which is a kind of greenhouse gas. It can increase the moisture retention effect of the atmosphere, so that the surface temperature can not be scattered out, forming a greenhouse environment. We can compare the environment of Venus to see the horror of the greenhouse effect. The surface temperature of Venus is 460 degrees Celsius. The reason why the temperature is so high is that 95% of the gas in Venus’ atmosphere is carbon dioxide.
If the carbon dioxide produced by human industrial production continues to be emitted into the atmosphere in large quantities, and we do not have good measures to absorb and balance these carbon dioxide, then the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere will be higher and higher in the future, and the temperature effect will be more and more serious. It is possible that in the near future, the earth will become a planet that is not suitable for human production.
Many friends often discuss the threat to the earth brought by the end of the sun’s life after billions of years. But in fact, according to the current rate of human destruction of the earth’s ecology, we simply can’t wait for billions of years. Maybe in a few hundred years, the earth will no longer be able to survive. At that time, if human beings wanted to continue, they could only immigrate to other planets. The prerequisite was that we had the ability of interstellar navigation. If we didn’t, we might only wait for the end of human destiny.
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