This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
With the help of science and technology, when human beings go out of the earth and see the vast universe, they are full of endless desire to explore the starry sky. In the vast universe, the most attractive thing for scientists is the various celestial bodies suspended in the space, so the exploration of celestial bodies has become a key task for scientists.
However, due to the limited scientific and technological strength of human beings, the planets we can explore are very limited. In order to really understand the situation of a planet, in addition to the observation by orbital probes, it is more important to be able to land on the surface of the planet for a long time. In the solar system where human beings live, there are only two neighboring planets, one is Venus, the other is Mars.
Venus is a planet with extremely harsh surface environment. Its surface temperature has reached more than 400 degrees Celsius, and it often rains acid rain. Therefore, when scientists see such a harsh environment of Venus, they can only resolutely give up the exploration of Venus and turn their focus to Mars, another neighbor.
The environment of Mars is much better than that of Venus, with only a thin atmosphere. The probe can not only observe in space, but also land on Mars for a long time. Although Mars is the most explored planet after human beings go out of the earth, it is not so easy to go to Mars for exploration. One of the important reasons is that Mars is relatively far away from the earth.
So how far is Mars from earth? How long does it take for the ship to arrive? Many people may know that when scientists launch a probe to Mars, it is not always possible. Instead, they have to choose a special time. If they miss this time, they can only wait for the next opportunity. Why can’t we launch a probe to Mars at any time?
The main reason is related to the orbit of Mars and the earth. We all know that the eight planets revolve around the sun. The earth revolves around the sun, and Mars naturally revolves around the sun, but their paths are quite different. Every 26 months Mars gets as close to the earth as possible. This is the point of Mars’ solar impact. At this time, the distance between Mars and the earth is not fixed, but between 3460 km and 6300 km.
When the Mars sun point appears, it is also the best time to launch a probe or spacecraft from the earth to Mars, because at this time the two are closest, and it will take more time to reach Mars. Even so, it will take at least half a year for the spacecraft to reach Mars from the earth.
When Mars reaches the sun impact point, its distance from the earth is gradually expanding. 13 months later, Mars reaches the other side of the sun. The earth and Mars are just on both sides of the sun. This position is the conjunction point of Mars, which is the farthest distance between them, about 250 million kilometers away. If the probe is launched to Mars at this time, it will take more than four times as long as the time to reach the sun, that is, it will take at least two years to reach Mars.
Therefore, when scientists send spacecraft to Mars, they need to wait for the appearance of the sun rush point, that is, every two years, the best time point to go to Mars will appear. If the probe goes to Mars, it will be relatively faster because it does not need to consider the adaptation of life. It only takes about half a year to reach Mars.
But if it is a manned spacecraft to Mars, the speed of the spacecraft will be slower than the probe, and the time to reach Mars will be more than half a year. It may take a year to reach the orbit of Mars, which is still at the sun rush point. If the astronauts want to return to earth from Mars, not all the time is OK. In order to save time, they also need to wait for the appearance of the sun rush point.
It is precisely because of the particularity of Mars orbit and earth orbit that scientists have a lot of worries about carrying people to Mars. It will take at least three years for astronauts to set out from earth to go to Mars and then return to earth. Three years’ journey in the universe will have a great psychological impact on astronauts.
I believe many of my friends will feel a sense of emptiness after a few days on the train, and the astronauts have to stay in the lonely universe for three years, we can imagine how much psychological pressure they need to bear. Moreover, there are various kinds of radiation and microgravity environment in the universe, which will threaten the health and life safety of astronauts.
So, the real situation of sending people to Mars or landing on Mars is far more complicated than we think. To achieve manned landing on Mars, spacecraft technology is a factor, the more important factor is how to deal with all kinds of radiation in the universe, microgravity environment and empty loneliness.
If we can not effectively solve the impact of cosmic radiation on human body and the impact of microgravity environment on human health, even if the spacecraft technology and other conditions are met, we dare not carry people to Mars. Only when the impact of human health is solved, can a preliminary manned landing on Mars be carried out.
Of course, another important reason why human manned landing on Mars is not possible is that the speed of our spacecraft is not fast enough. Why did human beings carry out manned lunar landing 50 years ago, and every time they went to the moon, they succeeded. At that time, the space technology of human beings was certainly far inferior to that of today. Apart from the advantages of the moon itself, another important factor was that the moon was very close to the earth.
It is precisely because the moon is very close to us that it does not take a long time for the spacecraft to go there, so the health and safety of the astronauts can be guaranteed to a certain extent. Now it’s the same with Mars. If our spacecraft is fast enough, it will only take a few days to go to Mars, then manned landing on Mars may have been realized long ago. Therefore, in a short period of time, it is not necessary to consider too much damage of the space environment to the astronauts, but only the safety of landing.
In fact, not only to explore Mars, but also to explore other planets, the most important difficulty is still the speed of the spacecraft. If our spacecraft achieves sub light speed, then the planets in the solar system may have been explored by human beings. With super speed, distance is no longer a problem, so other problems will be easier to solve.
Anyway, Mars is very important for human beings. It is the second livable planet that scientists expect for human beings in the future. As long as we work hard to develop science and technology, one day, going to Mars will be very easy and fast. Perhaps in the near future, Mars will be transformed into a second earth suitable for human survival, and many people will migrate to Mars and become Martians. We are looking forward to that day.
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