This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
I believe many of my friends like long jump and high jump. They always want to challenge themselves, break their own limits and break the world record. I believe friends all know that human beings live on the surface of the earth. Before we go out of the earth, we don’t know what the earth looks like or what the scene of human life is like.
However, after human beings walked out of the earth, we realized that the earth is a sphere, and human beings and most creatures live on the surface of the earth. As for why we didn’t leave the earth and fall into space, the reason is gravity. When Newton discovered the universal gravitation through the feeling of Apple landing, people also knew that the earth has gravitation. It is by the function of the earth’s gravitation that we can steadily live on the earth’s surface instead of falling into space.
And the biggest impact on human jumping limit is naturally the gravity on the earth’s surface. Ordinary people strive to jump up, debugging is basically about 50 cm, and the time spent in the air is basically about 1 second. If some athletes, often long-term training, the height of the jump will reach about one meter. Of course, this refers to the standing high jump. If it is the step assisted high jump, the height of the jump may reach more than 2 meters. At present, the world high jump record is 2.45 meters.
It can be seen that under the influence of gravity on the earth’s surface, it is impossible for us to jump higher. What about the height of this jump on other planets? How high can different planets jump? To know the answer, first of all, we need to understand what factors are related to the gravity of the planet’s surface. I believe many people know that the most important factor is mass.
The greater the mass of the planet, the greater the surface gravity. The reason why the sun can firmly attract the eight planets to move around it is that the mass of the sun accounts for 99.86% of the total mass of the solar system, and its powerful mass advantage makes it extremely powerful. The moon revolves around the earth because the mass of the earth is much larger than that of the moon, so the gravity is much larger.
If human beings stand on the surface of the moon and jump up, how high can they jump? The moon’s mass is about 1/81 of the earth’s surface, so the gravitational force on the surface is only 17% of the earth’s gravity. When we use the same jumping power on the earth, we can jump about 3 meters on the moon’s surface and stay in the air for about 4 seconds. Is it very awesome?
That’s why astronauts need to wear spacesuits when they walk on the moon. One aspect is that the moon has no atmosphere, so they can’t breathe and survive without spacesuits. Another reason is to increase its weight so that it can walk on the surface of the moon. If the moon has the oxygen that people need to breathe and can survive without special spacesuits, can people walk on the moon easily?
It’s not going to be easy. At that time, we would have to be more careful when we walked on the moon without wearing space suits, because we had to bounce and already flew out, which was a very dangerous thing. Therefore, even if the future moon surface can survive without space suits, people want to walk on the moon, still need to wear some heavy equipment, so as to increase their weight, more conducive to walking on the moon.
Next, let’s go to Mars, our neighbor planet. How high can we jump on the surface of Mars? Because the mass of Mars is smaller than that of the earth, and its gravity is only one-third of that of the earth. Although this gravity is smaller than that of the earth, it is much larger than that of the moon. Therefore, ordinary people can jump on the surface of Mars, and the height is about one meter.
Of course, this is the jumping height of ordinary people. If you are a special high jumper, their high jump performance on the earth can reach about 1 meter, then you can jump about 2.5 meters on the surface of Mars. The basic ratio is 1:2.5. The higher your jumping ability on the earth, the higher your jumping will be on other planets.
After walking through Mars, the next goal is Jupiter. Many people may wonder how high we can jump on the surface of Jupiter? In fact, because Jupiter is a gas giant planet, it is different from the rocky planet, there is no obvious land, most of it is the atmosphere. If mankind overcomes all difficulties and lands at the position of solid hydrogen below Jupiter’s atmosphere, here may be the solid position that we can rely on.
So when we get to the solid hydrogen surface below Jupiter’s atmosphere, can we jump up? The answer is No. Jupiter’s mass is more than 300 times that of the earth, and its gravity is 2.53 times that of the earth. If the gravity is on an earth like planet, we can still jump a little bit. But Jupiter is different. Above our head is Jupiter’s thick atmosphere. The strong atmospheric pressure makes it impossible for us to stand up, let alone jump.
Therefore, the landing of gas giant planets is very difficult, and the difficulty of entering the interior of Jupiter’s atmosphere is second only to entering the sun. Jupiter has many moons. The gravity of these moons is relatively small. How high will we jump when we choose the surface of Europa? Europa is about 500 kilometers in diameter and has little mass. The surface gravity of Europa is only 0.0113 times that of the earth.
If we jump on the surface of Europa, we must not do it without a strong heart. It will definitely frighten people to death. Ordinary people can jump at least 10 stories high, about 40 meters high. If they are specialized athletes, the height can reach about 50 meters. It’s dangerous to jump up so high and fall down, so when humans land on Europa for life exploration in the future, they need to wear heavier spacesuits, otherwise they can’t walk on it at all.
Maybe someone will ask: is the jumping on the surface of muxinger the limit of jumping on the outer planet? Of course not. Comet 67p has less surface gravity. If you jump on it, it’s like a rocket. Even if you walk on the surface of the comet, you should be careful. If you don’t pay attention, you will never see it again.
The above experiences may not be personal to ordinary people. If you are an astronaut, you will have a deeper experience. You can see from some space videos that when an astronaut carries out an extravehicular mission in space, he needs to tie a safety rope behind him, which is connected to the spaceship or space station. The reason for doing so is that the gravity in space is too small. If there is no safety rope, the reaction force generated by slightly touching the spacecraft or space station may make the astronauts eject directly and never come back.
It is precisely because the gravity of stars with different masses will be very different, so when scientists are looking for a second earth suitable for human survival, the mass of the planet is an important reference factor. If scientists find a planet that is almost exactly the same as the earth’s ecosystem, there will be an environment suitable for human survival on its surface. But because the mass of this planet is dozens of times that of the earth, the gravity is also many times that of the earth, so we have to give up such a planet, because the huge gravity on it is beyond human adaptation.
It can be seen that it is not easy to find a second earth suitable for human survival, and a lot of factors need to be considered. Gravity is a very important factor. Only a planet with the same gravity as the earth is an ideal habitable planet for human beings. The reason why scientists choose Mars as a planet for transformation is that the gravity on its surface is similar to that of the earth. In this way, once the atmosphere is successfully transformed, human migration to Mars can quickly adapt to the gravity above.
Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.