How is it possible for scientists to find a huge planet bigger than a star?

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

The vast universe was born in a singularity explosion 13.8 billion years ago, which produced super high temperature energy. As we all know, energy and matter can be transformed into each other, but the conditions required for energy to transform matter are very harsh. Only the energy at the moment of the big bang at the singularity can meet this condition, so the basic matter needed for the evolution of the universe was born.

With these basic materials, the universe is undergoing various evolutions in the process of continuous expansion, and finally forms stars, planets, galaxies and other celestial bodies and cosmic structures. How big is the universe? How many celestial bodies exist is still unknown, and the two most common celestial bodies in the universe are stars and planets.

Stars are very dazzling. They are the processing factory of cosmic elements, and they are also the most important structure of the universe. Without stars, not only the basic elements cannot be transformed, but also the universe will not be bright and warm. Stars bring some light and warmth to the dark and cold universe. They are the brightest existence in the universe.

Planets often form around the star, which is the nebula where the star is located. After the star is formed, the remaining matter forms planets under the action of gravity. Therefore, under normal circumstances, planets are smaller than stars, and their mass can not be compared with stars at all. They can only revolve around stars.

In our traditional scientific cognition, it is certain that the mass of a planet is less than that of a star, because a star is also evolved from a primitive celestial body similar to a planet. When the mass of a planet reaches a certain level, it can not maintain its role as a planet, and its interior will ignite nuclear fusion due to pressure and high temperature and evolve into a constant quantity, so the mass of a planet must be less than that of a star.

Since planets can’t compare with stars in mass, can they compare in volume? Maybe many people think that stars are huge objects with large mass and volume. The mass of planets can’t be compared, and the volume of stars can’t be compared. Is that really the case? Is there no planet bigger than a star in the universe?

There are eight planets in the solar system, the largest of which is Jupiter. Its mass is more than 300 times that of the earth. The earth is a baby in front of Jupiter. The huge Jupiter is also very small in front of the sun, so there is no comparability at all. Is there a case that planets are bigger than stars in other galaxies?

At first, scientists thought that it was impossible for planets to be bigger than stars in the universe, but a later observation made scientists silent. Scientists at the Federal Institute of technology in Zurich have discovered a new planet, named HD 100546, which is seven times the diameter of Jupiter and has a temperature of more than 600 degrees Celsius. It is a giant gaseous planet.

HD 100546 is relatively close to us, only about 335 light-years away. It is a miracle in the history of scientific observation to find such a huge planet at such a close distance. The planet is very young, only about 5 to 10 million years old, and is still in the early stage of evolution.

HD 100546 is 100 times larger than Jupiter, about 60% of the diameter of the sun, and can hold more than 300000 earths. Some people may say that HD 100546 is huge, but it is still not as big as the sun. But let’s not forget that the sun is a yellow dwarf, which belongs to the middle size star in the cosmic star family.

Below the yellow dwarf is the red dwarf, which is a relatively small star in the star family. However, j0523, the smallest star in the universe discovered by human beings, is only 40 light-years away from the earth, which can be called a pocket star.

The star is only 0.09 times the diameter of the sun, and it’s not as big as Jupiter. Such a compact star is also a small spot in front of HD 100546b, which is only 300 times the size of HD 100546b.

Although the size of this star is much smaller than HD 100546b, if you put it together, the planet will still have to move around the pocket star. The reason is that no matter how big the planet is, its mass can’t surpass that of the star. Put them together, there will be a giant object around a small point around the strange cosmic landscape.

Of course, this kind of giant graupel is not very rare in the universe. When a star’s life comes to an end, it will evolve in three directions: one is to evolve into a white dwarf, the other is to evolve into a neutron star, and a massive star will evolve into a black hole.

White dwarfs and neutron stars are very small in size. A neutron star with such a large mass as the sun may be tens of kilometers in diameter. Although they are very small, if there are planets around them, they also have to orbit around these very small and massive objects.

Compared with black hole, black hole is the most mysterious and powerful celestial body in the universe. Due to its powerful phagocytic power, even light can be swallowed, so we can’t directly observe the body of black hole, we can only see the horizon of its phagocytosis. In theory, the body of a black hole may be something with a very large mass like a singularity.

Our definition of singularity is a substance with infinite density and infinitesimal volume. Of course, the singularity of the black hole itself may not be infinitely large in mass and volume. It probably has a size, but it is much smaller than the neutron star.

It’s a tiny singularity. Because its mass is bigger than that of a star, the star will also revolve around the black hole after it enters its field. If it’s not lucky, it will be pulled into the horizon by the strong gravity of the black hole and swallowed by it step by step. Not to mention the planet, once close to the black hole, its fate has been doomed.

From the above understanding, we can see that mass is the core that determines who runs around whom in the universe, while volume is only a virtual external manifestation. As long as your mass is much larger than your opponent’s, even if the volume cannot be compared with your opponent’s, it can only run around you. This is the law that the mass of the universe is king.

From this, we can also see that the universe is so big that there are all kinds of things that we can’t imagine and nothing that doesn’t exist. It is only more than half a century since mankind stepped out of the earth and began to explore the universe. Although we have made some achievements in the exploration of the universe, what we have learned is only the skin, and what we have observed is only the tip of the iceberg in the universe.

There must be many celestial bodies or other things beyond our knowledge in the vast universe. If we want to explore more cosmic mysteries, we need to make efforts to continuously develop science and technology. Only when we have strong scientific and technological strength, and we have the strength to cross the stars, can we hope to explore the universe step by step, uncover various mysteries of the universe, and finally dominate the universe.

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