Four billion years ago, early life on earth was born. After billions of years of evolution and five times of mass extinctions, intelligent human beings were finally born millions of years ago. It can be seen that the birth of human beings is not easy, and it is not easy for a living planet to grow into a civilized planet.
After the birth of human beings, after millions of years of evolution and growth, we finally entered the era of science and technology hundreds of years ago. From then on, we started the journey of exploring the mysteries of all things in the world, the mysteries of life and the mysteries of the universe. In this journey of unknown length, people often think of such a question: how long can the earth allow human beings to survive?
You know, in the long billions of years of the earth’s life history, countless kinds of creatures were born, but these creatures did not exist forever, but were later extinct by nature. Even the dinosaurs, who dominated the earth for 160 million years, were also extinct by a small planet in 65 million years. Therefore, it seems very difficult for any life to survive forever on the earth.
Although human beings are intelligent life, different from other non intelligent creatures, in essence, human beings are mammals, and may one day be eliminated by the earth and disappear on the stage of life. So how long can humans survive on earth? In fact, no one can give a definite answer to this question. There are many factors that determine how long human beings can survive on the earth.
In order to understand how long the earth can allow human beings to survive, we need to consider both internal and external factors. Let’s first analyze the external factors of the earth. If we analyze it from the age of planets, it will be a very long time. We should know that the early ancient planets in the universe have been more than 10 billion years ago. Therefore, if the planet has not suffered great damage, it can live forever with the universe.
So in the solar system, can the Earth last forever? The answer is very difficult. One of the basic conditions for the existence of the earth is the sun. The sun is a star, which depends on the consumption of hydrogen by internal nuclear fusion. Stars have lifespan. According to their different masses, the lifespan of stars varies from tens of millions to tens of billions of years.
According to the standard of solar mass, the life span of the sun is about 10 billion years. Now the sun has burned for 5 billion years, so theoretically it can exist for another 5 billion years. When the sun reaches the end of its life, it will evolve into a white dwarf. The process of the sun’s evolution to a white dwarf is a very violent expansion explosion. At this stage, the sun will devour all the nearby celestial bodies, including the earth.
Therefore, under normal circumstances, the earth will be completely engulfed and disappeared by the sun in theory after 5 billion years, which is the time when the earth can still exist in theory. But human beings can’t survive on the earth for so long. When the hydrogen element inside the sun burns out, it will continue to expand and turn into a red giant. At that time, the orbit of the sun will continue to approach the earth, and the temperature of the earth will rise rapidly, so human beings will not survive on the earth. And this time is about 4 billion years later, so in theory, human beings can only live in the earth’s ecology for as long as 4 billion years.
Of course, the time of 4 billion years is too far away for human beings. Maybe the real survival time left by the earth is far less than this time. If the earth is hit by another 65 million year old asteroid one day, the earth’s ecology will collapse again and the mass extinction will begin. At that time, the earth will undergo drastic changes and may no longer be suitable for human survival.
According to the research of scientists, every 25 million years or so, an asteroid will hit the earth, causing a mass extinction event. If so, the time for human beings to survive on the earth may be shorter, because according to the time cycle, the earth seems to have not been hit by an extinct giant asteroid for tens of millions of years.
If this is the case, the earth may encounter the impact of a giant asteroid at any time. With the scientific and technological strength of human beings, the success rate of intercepting a giant asteroid is basically zero. Therefore, once a giant planet hits the earth, we will be powerless and can only wait for the arrival of fate. However, it’s very difficult for us to make an accurate judgment on such a small probability event as asteroid impact. No one knows when it will suddenly happen.
Having finished talking about the external factors of the earth, let’s talk about the internal factors. The earth is a rocky planet, and the plates are always in constant motion. It’s just that the influence of ordinary movement is not big, that is, there are some earthquakes at most. But if there is a violent global plate movement, it will bring about ecological upheaval, leading to the sixth mass extinction.
We can’t predict and judge these unknown external and internal natural factors, so scientists are not particularly worried about them. Even if they will happen in the future, it may be very long in the future. At that time, mankind might have been a powerful interstellar civilization, no longer bound to the earth and solar system, and there might have been many immigrant planets. The survival of the earth and the solar system may no longer be so important to mankind.
What scientists are really worried about is the survival problems caused by human beings themselves. We should know that the earth has become a planet unsuitable for human survival, which can be caused by natural factors or human factors. And human factors are faster and more terrible. As we all know, since mankind entered the era of science and technology, the rapid development of industry has caused more and more serious damage to the ecological environment.
Nature will continue to exterminate species on the earth, but this extinction is very slow. For example, to exterminate about 50% of species on the earth, with the power of nature, it will take at least a million years. However, in the hundreds of years since human beings entered the industrial society, about 50% of species have perished. How amazing and terrible the speed is.
Therefore, the damage of human industrial activities to the earth is the most serious. Once the ecological environment deteriorates to a certain extent, the ecosystem will be completely out of control. At that time, the global climate will change dramatically, and the earth will soon deteriorate to the point where human beings cannot survive. And this process is very fast, if not effective environmental control, it may only take hundreds of years to achieve.
If this is the case, then the earth may leave mankind only a few hundred years to live. After hundreds of years, we will have to leave the earth to live on other planets. Of course, the prerequisite is that we have the ability of interstellar navigation, and can emigrate from the solar system to other galaxies. Some people may say that scientists are not planning to regard Mars as an immigrant planet for human beings?
In fact, we all know that Mars is not suitable for human survival. If human want to immigrate to Mars, we must carry out a series of ecological transformation to make it a green planet to meet the living conditions of human beings. However, if human beings have the technology to transform Mars, the deteriorated earth will also be successfully transformed and will not emigrate from the earth.
Hundreds of years is just an ideal situation. Hawking is more pessimistic about the earth’s ecological environment. He predicted that the earth’s environment may become very bad in 2050, and human survival will be more difficult. In any case, it is no doubt that human activities have seriously damaged the earth’s ecology.
As scientists say, how long the earth can give human survival depends mainly on human’s own choice. If we can develop science and technology and strengthen the protection of the ecological environment, we will be able to live on the earth for a longer time. Until human science and technology to achieve a qualitative leap, with completely clean energy, as well as the transformation of the planet’s environment technology. At that time, the earth will return to the beautiful scenery of blue sky and white clouds, singing birds and fragrant flowers, and no longer worry about the deterioration of ecology, which makes human beings unable to survive.
Without the destruction of human beings and the earth itself, we can live on the earth for a very long time, until the sun begins to expand to the red giant. In fact, if human civilization can last for billions of years, we believe that technology has developed beyond our imagination. At that time, even if the earth could not survive due to the expansion of the sun, we could move the earth out of the solar system and move it to other stellar systems to live again through the power of science and technology.
It can be seen that science and technology can change the fate of human beings as well as the fate of the earth. As long as human civilization can continue, the earth may also exist. Even when the end of the universe comes, we can take the earth away from this universe and go to other universes to survive.
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