This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
In ancient times, people could see the sun hanging high every day when they looked up. In ancient people’s cognition, the sun could not be compared with the earth, it was only a part of the earth. However, with the continuous progress of human civilization and the emergence of science, people begin to realize that the sun is far from as simple as we think. In particular, some ancient astronomy enthusiasts believe that the sun may be much larger than the earth, but at that time, without astronomical telescopes, it was impossible to observe how big the sun was.
It was not until mankind entered the era of science and technology and invented the astronomical telescope that we were able to see the earth and the world beyond. At that time, we understood that the sun was the center of the solar system, and the earth was just a planet revolving around the sun. Later, with the help of science and technology, human beings finally walked out of the earth, so standing outside the earth, we really know how huge the sun is.
The mass of the sun is 330000 times that of the earth, and the volume of the sun is 1300000 times that of the earth. This is the cognition that we just came out of the earth. At that time, human vision was still in the solar system. Naturally, we thought that the sun was a big Mac and the real overlord of the solar system. However, with the continuous improvement of human observation technology, we saw the world outside the solar system. At that time, we realized that the sun was also tiny.
So how small is the sun? When we look at these celestial bodies in the universe, you will understand. The essence of the sun is a star, and the star is the light of the universe, is a very common and important class of celestial bodies. It brings some light and warmth to the dark and cold universe. At the same time, stars are also the key to the birth of life planet. Without stars, there would be no birth of life in the universe.
The diameter of the Milky way is more than 100000 light-years. In such a vast range, there are hundreds of billions of stars, and the Milky way is one of the countless galaxies in the universe, so the number of stars in the universe is beyond estimation. Although stars are a very large family of cosmic objects, stars are not the most powerful objects in the universe.
According to the different mass and volume, stars can be divided into high mass stars, medium mass stars and low mass stars. Stars with different masses have different lifespan. The larger the mass, the shorter the lifespan. Stars like the sun have a lifespan of about 10 billion years. And those big big big stars, their life may only be tens of millions of years, life is very short.
It is precisely because of the short lifetime of massive stars that the number of small and medium-sized stars is the largest in the family of stars, while the number of massive stars is relatively rare. At present, the largest star observed by scientists is uy scutellus, with a diameter of 2.376 billion kilometers, which is 4.5 billion times the volume of the sun and can hold 2 trillion earths. The sun is as small as dust in front of uy.
Although the volume of uy is the largest found at present, its mass is not the largest. Its mass is only about 10 times that of the sun. The reason why its volume is so huge is that uy is a massive star. Its life is coming to an end and it has begun to expand rapidly, so it is a super red giant.
At present, r136a1 is the largest mass star in the Large Magellanic Cloud. Its mass is about 265 times that of the sun and about 30 times that of uy in scutellus. However, its volume is only 30000 times that of the sun, far less than that of uy in scutellus.
Of course, r136a1 is the number one star, but not the number one celestial body in the universe. If we judge the strength of celestial bodies according to their mass, the real hegemony in the universe should be black holes. The mass of black hole is so big that we can’t imagine. Because black hole is a very special and mysterious celestial body in the universe, it can even devour light, so we can’t really observe the true face of black hole.
All the black holes we can observe are their event horizons, and we usually judge the size of a black hole according to the range of its event horizons. The larger the event horizon is, the larger the mass of the black hole is, and the larger the bound light can be affected. So who is the biggest black hole in the universe?
According to the current observation ability, the largest black hole discovered by scientists is ton618, which is a quasar (black hole with accretion disk on the periphery). Its mass is 66 billion times that of the sun, and its volume is even more exaggerated. Its event horizon volume diameter is considered as high as 384 billion kilometers, and it can put 4.3 million shield uy, or 200 million suns.
Although black hole is the dominator of the universe, its mass and volume are far from comparable to stars, but the predecessor of black hole is stars. According to the current observation and research, scientists believe that a massive star is at the end of its life. After a supernova explosion, the external matter is thrown out, the internal matter is compressed, and finally it evolves into a black hole.
So if the black hole from the physical structure, it is a huge nucleus, its density is too big for us to imagine, such a super-high density material, we also call it singularity. Therefore, the center of the black hole may be a singularity with an extraordinary density. This singularity evolved after the death of a massive star, and it has a super high speed. Some people think that this speed may exceed the speed of light.
It’s because of its huge mass, incredibly small volume and super fast speed. So it makes the space around the singularity produce a vortex, and at the same time distorts the surrounding space, forming an invisible space vortex. As long as there is material into the space vortex, it will be swallowed and form an accretion disk.
Therefore, the accretion disk is the outermost region of the black hole. The closer to the black hole, the stronger the gravity and the more severe the space distortion. Scientists have observed the superluminal phenomenon of some particles near the black hole, which shows that the black hole distorts the space very much. It is this distortion that makes some particles break the space and realize the superluminal shuttle.
Of course, we know very little about black holes at present. Due to the limitation of science and technology, we can’t get close to or even go out of a black hole exploration, and naturally we can only get some very superficial understanding. Even our current understanding of black holes may be wrong in itself, and it may be far more complicated and mysterious than we think.
The universe is vast and has numerous celestial bodies. Due to the limited observable range of human beings, and the expansion speed of the universe exceeds the speed of light. So most of the universe is still unobservable, and beyond the observable range, there may be even larger objects beyond our imagination. Most of these objects are early objects in the universe, but we can’t see them now.
Only in the future, when humans have mastered the technology of superluminal flight and superluminal observation, can they catch up with light and surpass the speed of the expansion of the universe, so as to observe the deeper and even the edge of the universe. At that time, we will find more huge objects, and the sun in front of such objects, not even a grain of dust. The faster we learn about the universe, the smaller we feel.
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