Since mankind entered the road of scientific and Technological Development hundreds of years ago, human civilization has also entered a new height and opened a brilliant scientific civilization. Science and technology has brought great benefits to human beings. It not only makes people’s quality of life higher and higher, but also makes human beings realize their dream of flying to the sky and go out of the earth to explore the universe.
In fact, the rapid development of science and technology is also the rapid development of energy. Only with continuous breakthroughs in energy, can science and technology move forward all the way. It can be seen that energy is the key to the continuous innovation of human civilization science and technology. It is precisely because of the continuous development of energy that our present means of transportation can become more and more advanced and faster. The most powerful energy of mankind now is nuclear energy, and for a long time in the future, mankind will continue to develop nuclear energy.
As for nuclear energy, many people may think of the power of nuclear bombs. Nuclear bombs include atomic bombs and hydrogen bombs. Although they are all nuclear energy, their possible modes can be very different. One is nuclear fission, the other is nuclear fusion. Nuclear fission is the strongest energy mode for human beings, which is used in nuclear power plants or space probes.
Although nuclear fission is very powerful, it has many disadvantages. It will not only produce a lot of nuclear waste, but also have nuclear radiation pollution, so it can not become the universal energy of human beings. Nuclear fusion is different. Its power is at least six times more than that of nuclear fission, and its fusion is composed of two lighter atoms to form a heavier atom. The process of fusion releases huge energy.
There are many advantages of nuclear fusion. First, the raw materials it needs are very common, and the most easily produced fusion reaction is hydrogen isotope, that is, the fusion of deuterium and tritium. Hydrogen is the most important element on the earth. Seawater can decompose a lot of hydrogen, and water is also a very common substance in the universe. Many planets in the solar system have water. Although only the earth has liquid water on the surface, there are many planets with frozen water on the surface and liquid water inside.
Another important advantage of nuclear fusion is that it is a completely clean energy, does not produce any radiation and pollution, and the reaction is very stable. But it is a kind of energy that human beings expect very much. Of course, for scientists, the important application of nuclear change is still in the future space exploration.
We all know that the universe is so vast that no one knows how big it is. However, we know that light year is the most basic unit to measure the scale of the universe, and its function is the same as our basic unit meter on earth. But a light year is about 9460730472580 meters, which is a huge number.
In front of the universe with light-years as the basic unit of measurement, the speed of sound and supersonic flight that humans used to be proud of is nothing at all. At such a speed, we can’t even go out of the solar system, let alone explore the entire galaxy. The solar system, including the Oort cloud, has a diameter of 2 light-years. At the speed of human spaceships, it will take at least 10000 years to fly out.
Therefore, if human beings want to go out of the solar system and explore the whole galaxy, speed is the most important thing. Without super fast speed, everything is in vain. But to achieve such a speed, there must be a breakthrough in energy, and now the chemical energy of mankind has basically reached the peak, it is difficult to have a huge room for growth. To fly out of the solar system, we need at least the speed of sublight, so what kind of energy can we do? Scientists think of controlled fusion.
Compared with the energy of chemical energy, the energy of nuclear fusion is one sky and one earth, and the gap is very huge. What’s going on inside the sun is nuclear fusion reaction, which shows how powerful its energy is. If human beings master controllable nuclear fusion technology, there will be no problem flying out of the solar system. But some people say that we can fly out of the galaxy if we master nuclear fusion technology. Is that true?
In fact, these people may be too fanciful. We do not deny that nuclear fusion can bring a qualitative leap to human civilization. It can even be said that once nuclear fusion technology is realized, human beings can enter a new era of scientific and technological revolution, and there is no problem in upgrading human civilization. But it’s almost impossible to fly out of the galaxy.
The Milky way is a relatively large galaxy with a diameter of at least 100000 light-years, and contains at least hundreds of billions of small galaxies such as the solar system. The solar system is about 26000 light-years away from the center of the Milky way. If we start from the earth in the opposite direction of the galactic center, it is about 24000 light-years away from the edge of the Milky way. If it’s flying across the galactic center, it’s 76000 light-years away.
Take at least 24000 light-years as an example. Even if our spacecraft can fly at the speed of light, it will take at least 24000 years to fly out. This is obviously unrealistic. To fly out of the galaxy, the speed of a spaceship can only exceed the speed of light. So can the spacecraft fly faster than light by relying on nuclear fusion energy? It’s obviously impossible.
I believe my friends have seen a very popular science fiction film “wandering earth” at the beginning of this year. In the film, scientists push the earth out of the solar system, using nuclear fusion technology. This kind of nuclear clustering technology is heavy nuclear fusion, using rocks that exist everywhere on the earth. This kind of nuclear fusion technology is obviously more advanced than the hydrogen nuclear fusion that we are studying and discussing now, which can be said to be an upgraded version of nuclear fusion technology.
Even if the more advanced nuclear fusion technology in wandering earth can achieve the fastest speed for the earth, it is only five thousandths, which will take about 3000 time to reach the nearest nearby galaxy. Such powerful nuclear fusion technology can not make the speed of spacecraft infinitely close to the speed of light, let alone ordinary nuclear fusion technology.
Although it’s just a story in the movie, the real situation is similar. Nuclear fusion technology can really make a qualitative leap in the speed of the spacecraft and realize the preliminary sub light speed flight. There is no problem for such a speed to fly out of the solar system, but it is impossible to fly out of the galaxy. Of course, if human beings really realize nuclear fusion technology, it will be possible to go out of the solar system and explore nearby galaxies. At that time, human beings will be able to achieve preliminary interstellar migration to earth like planets near the solar system that are suitable for human survival.
If nuclear fusion technology can’t get us out of the galaxy, what kind of energy can be realized? There is no upper limit to the development of energy. There are antimatter and dark matter on top of nuclear fusion. If we can realize the application of antimatter energy, it is possible to make the speed of the spacecraft achieve a qualitative leap again, infinitely close to the speed of light.
At such a speed, the scope of the universe that human beings can explore will be larger, and within a hundred light-years around the solar system will be human territory. But this kind of speed is far away from flying out of the galaxy, and above antimatter is dark matter, which is the most powerful energy in the universe known by human beings. If it can be applied, the speed of the spaceship may really break through the speed of light and achieve superluminal flight.
Of course, the speed of light and superluminal flight are too far away for human beings. They are still completely unknown to human beings. In the current scientific system of human beings, Einstein’s theory of relativity has set that the speed of a mass object can only be infinitely close to the speed of light. To break through this limitation, technology must undergo disruptive changes.
The realization of light speed flight is nothing in front of the cosmic scale, which is equivalent to human walking on the earth by walking to realize bicycle walking, and it is just a preliminary step into the interstellar civilization. It is far from the real vertical and horizontal galaxy and universe. Of course, we should not be discouraged. The reason why human beings feel powerless about the vast universe is that our scientific and technological development time is too short, only a few hundred years.
If we give human beings tens of thousands or even hundreds of millions of years of development time, we believe that human civilization can overcome difficulties step by step. Just like the development of human science and technology on earth, the original bicycle has been continuously developed into motorcycles, automobiles, airplanes and rockets, and the speed has been continuously improved. The same is true in the development of interstellar civilization, and the speed can also be continuously improved in the process of continuous development. The current speed of light flight and superluminal flight may be a distant dream. However, in the infinite future, they may all be realized. At that time, human beings will be regarded as the real powerful civilization of the universe.
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