If we solve one of the four ultimate problems perplexing the scientific community, human civilization will enter a new stage

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

Hundreds of years ago, after a long period of development, human civilization finally entered the road of scientific and technological development. The rapid development of science has brought great benefits to human beings and made a qualitative leap in human civilization. Although we all know that the power of science is powerful, we also know that there is no end to the development of science. On the road of human scientific development, there are also four ultimate problems that perplex the scientific community. To solve any one of them, human civilization will enter a new stage.

The first ultimate problem: where does the universe come from? When human beings walk out of the earth and see the vast universe, they will think of a question: How did the universe come from? As for the origin of the universe, the view of modern science is that it originated from the singularity explosion 13.8 billion years ago. That is, a mysterious singularity with infinite mass and infinitesimal density. The big bang happened 13.8 billion years ago, and then the universe was born.


After the birth of the universe continued to expand at the speed of super light, slowly forming the present universe. Is it true that the origin of the universe came from the big bang? At present, there is no definite answer. Scientists have confirmed through observation that the universe is indeed expanding rapidly, which can be concluded by observing the rapid distance between galaxies in the deep universe.

However, the scientific community has not yet formed a definite answer to the origin of the universe, and many people even think that the big bang theory may be wrong. We need to know that the starting point of the big bang theory is the mysterious singularity. According to scientists, this singularity is a matter with infinite mass, infinitesimal volume and infinite energy. Is it really possible for such a matter to exist in reality?

In the world of science, there seems to be no infinity. If there is no infinity in the world of science, the possibility of singularity 13.8 billion years ago is very small. Therefore, the big bang theory may not be correct, the origin of the universe may be even more beyond our imagination, but it is far from the ultimate mystery to explore with human science and technology.


The second ultimate problem: is pluralistic cosmology correct? In fact, this has something to do with the origin of the universe above. If we can be sure that the multi cosmology is correct, there will be one more conjecture about the origin of the universe. In the past people’s cognition, the universe is the only one. Our universe is vast, inclusive and boundless.

Is the theory of universal uniqueness correct? Before human beings walked out of the earth, before science, we knew little about the earth. People at that time also thought that the earth was the whole universe, and the stars, the sun and the moon in the sky were all part of the earth. However, when human beings enter the era of science and technology, we will find how ridiculous and ignorant the ancients’ cognition is.

Are the ancients ignorant and ridiculous? In fact, it is ridiculous and ignorant at all. In different periods, people have different understandings of everything and the universe. The ancients believed that the earth was the whole universe, which was based on the premise that there was no scientific cognition at that time. But now, we have walked out of the earth and seen the vast universe. In modern people’s cognition, the universe is the only one, the universe contains everything. Is this kind of cognition different from that of the ancients?


From the perspective of science, there is no difference between them. We think that the universe is unique, that is because our understanding of the universe is almost blank. At this time, some scientists put forward the pluralistic cosmology, thinking that the universe is not unique. There is more vast space outside our universe, where there are countless kinds of universes.

Of course, it is only a conjecture whether the pluralism of the universe is correct or not, which can not be proved by the current human science and technology. To really understand whether the universe is pluralistic, we need more powerful telescopes, which can see infinitely far away. If there is space outside the universe, we can’t escape the observation of powerful telescopes. Unfortunately, we can’t do it now, we can only look forward to the future.

The third ultimate problem: is there a boundary in the universe? In fact, this problem is closely related to the above problem. If scientists prove that the multi cosmology theory is correct in the future, then the universe must have the same size and boundary as the stars.


With the current human observation technology, we can only observe the earth as the center with a radius of 46.5 billion light years. This is a huge area that we can’t imagine, but it may just be the tip of the iceberg in the vast universe. In fact, it is not too difficult to understand whether the universe has boundaries. We can imagine the expansion of the universe as the expansion of a balloon.

When we blow balloons, they keep expanding and getting bigger. If the balloon’s membrane can extend indefinitely, then the balloon can expand indefinitely. At this time, I asked my friends, does this balloon have a boundary? The answer is yes, because the balloon is constantly expanding, it has no fixed size, and its diameter and volume are changing all the time.

But this volume has a boundary, and its boundary has existed since it began to expand. With this in mind, let’s look back at the universe. The expansion of the universe is similar to that of a balloon. Is there a boundary in the universe? There is a probability. The situation of the universe is similar to that of a balloon. Although there is no definite size, there may be a boundary.


However, due to the limitation of human science and technology, we have not been able to observe the boundary of the universe, and naturally we can not know how big the universe is. It is possible that in the future, we will have more advanced observation equipment, and we may be able to see the boundary of the universe. If there is a boundary in the universe, then what is outside the universe? This problem is also the second ultimate problem. As long as one of the two problems is solved before, the other one is basically solved.

The fourth ultimate energy: what is human consciousness? Human beings are the only intelligent life on earth, and the reason why human beings are intelligent life is not ahead of human body, but depends on powerful brain. The human brain is the most important, complex and mysterious organ of the human body. In this organ, the most complex and mysterious is not the visible cells, neurons and other tissues, but the invisible but real consciousness.

The essence of human consciousness has been studied in ancient times, but the ancients deified human consciousness, so there are many legends about ghosts and gods. After entering the era of science and technology, scientists began to use scientific methods to explore and study consciousness. In the view of scientists, although consciousness can not be touched or seen, there is no doubt about its existence.


Consciousness is the leading role of human beings. If there is no consciousness, human beings are walking dead and have no soul. Such a living body will no longer be an intelligent life, so people are called people because we have our own consciousness, which dominates all human behaviors. But what is this consciousness? At present, the scientific community has no answer.

Of course, nothing in the world can be solved without science. Now we don’t know much about consciousness. The main reason is that human science and technology are relatively backward and there is no way to see consciousness. If one day we can observe the existence of consciousness through some scientific equipment, then we will not be far away from solving the mystery of consciousness.

Guys, what do you think of the four ultimate problems in science? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.


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