4.6 billion years ago, only the Earth shows the miracle of life in the long process of evolution. However, any celestial body, like human beings, has its birth, growth and death.
The earth will eventually grow old. This event may be 3 billion years old. At that time, there will be no volcanic activity, no plate movement and no strong earthquake. The earth will slowly cool down and eventually become a big stone.
Can we find another safe habitat for all human beings and let human beings have two habitats?
At present, scientists all over the world recognize that Mars is the best choice and object to achieve this idea. Mars is one of the closest planets to the earth in the solar system.
Especially when people put aside the mysterious veil of Venus, they were disappointed to find that Venus was not only an extremely high temperature and high pressure acidic atmosphere, but also a toxic “Death Star”. And Mars is more like a tender and amiable “star of hope”.
All kinds of evidences show that Mars was probably a livable “paradise” just like the earth. More than 3 billion years ago, Mars had vitality inside and a thick atmosphere outside, and the magnetic field could protect everything on Mars.
Once upon a time, there was probably plenty of liquid water or even vast ocean on the surface of Mars. Later, the interior of Mars gradually cooled, the magnetic field gradually disappeared, and the atmosphere dispersed.
The liquid water on the surface could not be spared. In the end, it became what we see today, cold, dry and dead.
However, it is not impossible to transform Mars to have atmosphere and water again. After all, many new discoveries in recent years are so gratifying.
In 2008, data from NASA and ESA Mars probes showed that there was a large amount of pure underground water ice in the shallow layer of Mars.
Even under the Antarctic ice on Mars, there may be saltwater lakes. Now that there is water, what about the atmosphere?
The average pressure of Mars is only 6 bar from the surface of the earth.
On the earth, we call for emission reduction and can not release more carbon dioxide, mainly because the greenhouse effect will make the earth temperature rise, leading to many serious consequences.
For example, the Arctic and Antarctic ice caps are melting, the sea level is rising, and some low-lying areas will even be flooded by large water. However, on Mars, the more the emissions, the better. This will increase the concentration of the atmosphere, increase the greenhouse effect of the atmosphere, and increase the surface temperature of Mars.
Future Martian residents may be able to get out of the air without wearing space suits. Ordinary aircraft can also take off and land on Mars, which will gradually transform the red Mars into a green one. Earth and Mars will become sister communities for the sustainable development of human society.
It’s beautiful to think about this! As far as Carl Sagan 50 years ago, as close as Elon Musk, the founder of SpaceX, and countless people have thought about it and done a lot of feasibility studies.
In 1971, Carl Sagan tried to calculate whether the carbon dioxide released would change the atmosphere and ecology of Mars if the Arctic ice sheet melted and evaporated, so that liquid water could be stable.
Of course, people at that time did not know enough about the reserves of the Arctic and Antarctic ice sheets on Mars.
However, an opinion article published in the journal Nature Science in August 2018 was not optimistic about this.
At the present level of human technology, even if all the carbon reserves on Mars are converted into carbon dioxide gas, it may not be enough to make Mars reach the standard of livable planet.
That is to say, with the current level of human science and technology, if human beings want to migrate to Mars, it is impossible for them to freely engage in outdoor activities.
However, Xiaobian thinks that we should not be too depressed, because Mars migration is not impossible.
We can still build a closed Mars base, or live directly on the ground, so that humans and organisms can build an ecosystem in a closed environment and live for a long time.
Of course, there are other advantages. The closed environment is safer, and it’s not easy to be hit by meteorites, so you want to be open!
What do you think of this? Welcome to comment area.