Live on the mountain, live on the water, there is oil under the ground, gold on the ground. “Middle East local tyrants” can often be seen in social platforms and TV news. Middle East people living in Saudi Arabia and other regions with rich oil resources, surrounded by white headscarves, have lived a rich life that ordinary people can’t match since they were born. Are you also thinking about this question: is oil a renewable energy? Won’t Saudi Arabia run out of oil resources?
Today, Xiaobian will take you into this mysterious country surrounded by headscarves to explore the mystery of “liquid gold” in the Middle East.
1、 What is bio oil theory
Fossil energy is a kind of energy composed of hydrocarbons and their derivatives. Coal, oil and natural gas, which are commonly used in our life, belong to the category of fossil energy. The reason why fossil energy is called “fossil energy” is that we have to mention the existing theory of fossil energy formation.
Coal was first discovered and used by people. At present, it is generally believed that coal evolved from ancient plant fossils: before plants were decomposed by microorganisms, it went through the peat stage and coal stage. Under the successive effects of Biochemistry and physicochemistry, it changed from plant remains into coal that can be directly used by people.
Oil is a fossil resource derived from the remains of organisms in ancient oceans or lakes. In the remote Paleozoic or Mesozoic era, due to natural disasters or geological movements, a large number of ancient marine animals and plants died at the same time. Under the decomposition of microorganisms, the remains of animals and plants decomposed into organic matter, mixed with sediment and carbonate sediment to form a sedimentary layer. The sedimentary layer continued to stack, the pressure and temperature continued to rise, forming oil shale, and the oil shale degenerated into liquid Hydrocarbon in the state of gas and gas, whose mass is lighter than that of the upper rock, will continue to penetrate and rise until it meets the rock with higher density and can no longer penetrate upward. Hydrocarbon will accumulate and form an oil field.
2、 The theory of peak oil meets Waterloo
Since the birth of internal combustion engine in 1886, the traditional coal energy has been unable to meet people’s needs. Oil and natural gas, as more efficient energy, have gradually entered the public field of vision, and the demand for both is also increasing. After the theory of oil and gas geology was put forward, the technology of oil exploitation and refining has been greatly improved, and the oil and gas production has also been continuously improved.
In the 1960s, the consumption of oil officially exceeded that of coal and became a leader in the energy industry, but at the same time, another problem also emerged: is the total amount of oil on the earth unchanged? Will the oil resources be used up one day?
The theory of peak oil does not hold water
U.S. geologist Herbert believes that oil is a non renewable resource, and the oil resources of any country and region are limited, so the exploitation of oil will reach a certain peak, and after reaching the peak, its oil production will inevitably decline. So in 1949, Harbert put forward the “bell curve” of oil, also known as “peak oil theory”.
In Harbert’s theory, he predicted that the U.S. oil production would reach its peak in 1970, and then show a downward trend. However, this prediction did not come true, and the theory of peak oil was “slapped” for the first time. Coincidentally, Beihai oilfield also suffered from the violation of the peak oil theory.
As the world’s first energy, oil reserves have always been concerned. For example, in 1971, the total oil reserves in the world were 71 billion tons. According to the peak oil theory, the later oil reserves should be less. However, the total oil reserves in 1999 were 141.2 billion tons, while the total oil reserves in 2014 were 239.8 billion tons. Compared with 71 billion tons in 1971, it has increased by 3-4 times.
So from these data, the world’s total oil reserves are not less and less, but more and more, and we can use more and more oil.
Saudi Arabia’s oil resources continue to flow
At the same time, Saudi Arabia, as the world’s largest “oil kingdom”, continuously provides oil to all parts of the world. But why does Saudi Arabia’s oil output not decline, but continue to rise?
First of all, the location of Saudi Arabia is relatively special compared with other oil exploitation places, and the difficulty of oil exploitation is relatively small, so the cost of oil exploitation is relatively low. Naturally, it is relatively easy to increase the amount of oil exploitation.
Secondly, as Saudi Arabia’s largest economic pillar, the oil industry’s achievements in the oil industry must be mentioned. Their exploration technology, mining technology, refining technology upgrading and transformation, in mining technology, chemical catalyst technology, hydrocarbon oil cracking, polymer compounds and other aspects are very excellent, there are a large number of patents.
Finally, oil is the only link between Saudi Arabia and other countries. In order to speed up oil production, Saudi Arabia has built a lot of infrastructure, such as transportation, communication, etc., and there are special export channels for oil in railways, highways, ports, airports, etc. Even Saudi Arabia has 19 oil companies in 11 countries.
So even if Saudi Arabia’s total oil volume is unchangeable, with the development of science and technology, can the output not be greatly improved?
Oil discovery in the dnets Basin
Apart from American petroleum geologists who hold the view that “oil is a non renewable resource”, another group of former Soviet Union Petroleum Geologists hold the view that oil is a renewable resource. It is their discovery that makes former Soviet Union scientists produce this view that some abandoned and undeveloped oil fields are produced again decades later Oil!
The dnets basin, located in southeastern Ukraine and southwestern Russia, is a typical example. Since the beginning of the 19th century, the output of the dnets basin has been accounting for more than 80% of the total output of Russia. After the 1870s, the output began to decline. Today, it is proved that the reserves of fossil resources in the dnets basin are very large, and the proportion of high-quality resources is very high.
4、 What is the theory of abiotic oil formation
“America’s elites are not beautiful. The theory that oil is scarce or even exhausted is that they made it to control global oil
The big game of the market. ” William endoll, a famous American Geopolitical scientist, has made an amazing speech in his new book “the chess game of oil”. He believes that oil does not come from the remains of ancient marine life, but from inorganic matter deep in the earth.
There are many other scientists who hold the theory of “abiotic oil formation” like Endor. To explore whether oil is transformed from biological remains or other abiotic substances, there is an important research method – looking for biomarkers.
If oil comes from biological remains, it should have “biomarkers” – porphyrin molecules. However, no biomarkers were found in the bacteriological investigation of oil produced in dnets basin by Russian scientists. As a result, they are more inclined to the hydrocarbons that make up oil. In fact, they come from a place about 200 kilometers away from the earth’s surface. In the process of vertical rise of hydrocarbons, they pass through the area where nickel and iron are located, and change under the catalysis of the two.
The above is the “mantle degassing theory” of American astronomer gold. In addition, the abiogenic theory also includes the mantle hydrocarbon alkali fluid theory, the middle crust and Fischer Tropsch geological synthesis theory and so on.
According to the theory of bio oil generation, the deepest depth of oil generation is 4000 meters. In fact, oil fields with a depth of more than 5000 meters are all over the world. These oil fields are producing oil day and night.
As a one-time and high-efficiency energy, oil has indeed made an indelible contribution to human industrial development and daily production and life. However, the air pollution and greenhouse effect caused by the utilization of oil are also causing inevitable damage to our earth. The emergence of clean energy such as wind energy and electricity provides a new idea for human energy consumption, advocating green and low-carbon life, It is an obligation that every one of us can not refuse to make efforts to build a good ecological environment.