In this paper, the author participated in the series of soliciting articles of “hundred science” and “great basic science”
The earth is a life planet rich in species. In addition to tens of millions of kinds of life, there are also intelligent human beings. In addition to the rich species, the earth is also a planet rich in resources, and these resources are also the guarantee for the long-term survival and development of human beings.
With the development of science and technology, the demand for resources is more and more. In the past, without science and technology, people in ancient times could only use some surface resources, but could not use underground resources. However, the advent of science and technology makes it possible to use underground resources, one of which has the most profound impact on human beings is oil.
I believe that no one does not know oil. Many human machines need oil, such as motorcycles, cars, planes, trains, etc. Some people may think that the role of oil is to provide gasoline and diesel. In fact, it is not. After oil is pumped up from the ground, it is crude oil, a kind of black and smelly liquid substance. After crude oil is refined and processed, it will be divided into many uses.
Our common ones are aviation cars, aviation kerosene, ordinary gasoline and diesel. Petroleum by-products also include petroleum solvents, lubricants, paraffin, asphalt, etc. it can be said that petroleum is a treasure without any waste. Oil has a wide range of uses, whether in daily life or industrial production, can not do without it. It is oil that has such a great impact on human beings, so the amount of oil reserves has become one of the symbols of a country’s comprehensive strength.
If a country has rich oil reserves, it will at least be very rich. Moreover, the oil turmoil is also related to the global economic turmoil. Some time ago, the destruction of an oil field in a foreign country caused great turmoil in the global financial market. We can see how influential it is. And for the sake of oil, some countries will not hesitate to launch a war to plunder.
The earth’s underground oil reserves are very rich. Now we are extracting oil from the ground every day, and it has been extracted for more than half a century, but the underground oil reserves are still not decreasing. Many people are very curious about the formation of such abundant oil reserves when the oil is buried under 1000 meters? It has been suggested that oil is formed from animal carcasses. Is that right?
At present, scientists have two views on the formation of oil. One is that all kinds of organic matter evolved slowly after more than ten thousand years of geological changes. One part of this organic matter is made up of animal corpses. Scientists believe that there were mass extinctions on the earth hundreds of millions of years ago in ancient times. I believe many people know that the earth experienced five mass extinctions in billions of years.
Marine organisms are the most abundant in the early life of the earth. After the great extinction, 80% of the marine organisms are extinct. The corpses of these organisms are rich in organic matter. After the death of marine organisms, the decomposed organic matter is deposited in the rocks. Through plate movement, crustal movement and the continuous superposition of organic matter, the oxygen composition disappears, and the carbon element is retained, which is the same as the rest The inorganic substances and other chemical substances in the oil form.
Therefore, we will find that most of the earth’s oil reserves are in the seabed. Although some land also has oil reserves, these lands with oil reserves are actually oceans long ago, according to the exploration of scientists, but later the plate movement made the original ocean become land. Although it has become a land, there is a backlog of organic matter that was decomposed by marine organisms under the ground 1000 meters. They combine with inorganic matter to form oil slowly.
Another view of scientists on the formation of oil is that in ancient times, there were a lot of oxygen and carbon elements in the earth’s atmosphere. These substances combined with other impurities and were relatively light in weight, so they did not sink into the crust like rocks. Instead, they adhered to the rock wall. With the movement of the crust, friction and heat production, they gradually formed mobile oil.
There is no definite answer to which of these two statements is correct. However, most of the substances in oil are hydrocarbons. When oil is formed, both organic and inorganic substances are involved. The origin of organic substances may be animals or plants, because they can decompose to produce carbon.
As for the fact that oil is formed by the carcasses of animals, this is not entirely correct. In the process of oil formation, it is a high probability event that the carcasses of animals are involved. The reason is that oil is basically formed in the ocean, and most of the organisms in the ocean are all kinds of organisms, including fish and marine plants. However, one thing is clear: the formation of oil has little to do with the carcasses of land animals, and if so, the carcasses of marine organisms.
Although oil is now an important resource and energy for human beings, its burning has caused more and more serious damage to the earth’s ecological environment. Now the global temperature is rising and the ecological environment is deteriorating. A large part of the reason is closely related to the extensive use of oil. But with today’s science and technology, we can’t develop science and technology rapidly without using chemical fuels such as petroleum.
Therefore, for a long time in the future, the main energy that mankind can rely on will still be oil, and the deterioration of the earth’s ecological environment will not stop. However, the application of petroleum and other chemical fuels will not last forever. One reason is that petroleum and other resources are non renewable resources. If we use a little less, we will not use them up. The future of the earth is bound to be a situation of resource depletion.
Another reason is that the deterioration of the earth’s ecological environment also makes scientists have to speed up the research on real pollution-free clean energy. If oil and other energy resources are used all the time, the earth may soon deteriorate to the point where it can’t adapt to human survival. In the future, the important new energy of mankind should be controllable nuclear fusion, which is a completely clean, efficient and pollution-free energy.
Once controlled nuclear fusion is realized, it can completely replace oil, natural gas and other traditional chemical energy. Moreover, the energy of nuclear fusion energy is more powerful. Maybe all the electricity needs of our ordinary home now can be realized with only a small piece of nuclear fusion battery in the future. A small piece of fusion battery can meet a family’s electricity demand for a year.
Every major change in energy is also a major change in science and technology of human civilization. Since the first industrial revolution, mankind has entered the era of science and technology, and now it has experienced three industrial revolutions. Each industrial revolution is a major leap in human civilization. The fourth industrial revolution in the future may be the energy revolution represented by nuclear fusion.
Therefore, nuclear fusion is very important for the progress of human beings. When it is successfully realized represents the arrival of a new round of scientific and technological revolution. What’s more, once controllable nuclear fusion is realized, it means that human beings can finally hope to get out of the solar system. The nuclear fusion engine may make the spacecraft fly at sub light speed. With sub light speed, we can explore the galaxies near the solar system, and hopefully achieve interstellar migration. Human beings do not need to shrink on the earth, but spread to space, which is more conducive to the development of space The continuation and development of human beings. Human beings no longer have to worry about the problem that the earth will be unable to cope with a huge disaster.
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