4.6 billion years ago, the earth was born in the habitable zone of the solar system. 3.8 billion years ago, the earth’s early life was born. 5 million years ago, the ancestors of mankind were born. Today, human beings are the overlord of the earth and the advanced life at the top of the food chain. In the future, human beings may also become the overlord of the galaxy and the universe.
Should we be proud of such a great human being? But before we are proud, we should first consider such a question: is the birth of mankind a coincidence or a necessity? Many people may think that the birth of human beings is the result of God’s will, the evolution of life and the inevitable choice of nature. Is that true?
To solve this mystery, we need to start from the origin of the universe, the origin of life in the universe. We all know that the universe originated from the big bang of singularity 13.8 billion years ago. Before the birth of the universe, there was no matter. At that time, even a small particle did not exist.
Later, a mysterious singularity exploded, and the universe was born. So after the birth of the universe, are there stars, planets and life in one step? Of course not. In fact, there were no particles at the moment of the big bang. At that time, there were no basic particles such as electrons, masses and neutrons.
In the early days of the big bang, some of them could only be high-energy electromagnetic waves, that is, photons as we know them. I believe many people know the existence of antimatter. In general, elementary particles have their own antiparticles. For example, the antiparticles of electrons are positrons. But the photon is different, its antiparticle is itself, set positive and negative attributes together.
When two positive and negative particles collide, they will annihilate and release energy, leaving one electron and positron for every billion pairs of photons. Every billion pairs of positrons collide with electrons, leaving one particle of positive matter – electron, which is why our universe is dominated by positive matter.
The collision of these particles requires a very high temperature, and the moment and early days of the big bang were a very high temperature period, so the universe experienced a process of creating particles at this time. There are many kinds of particles, and the early birth of the universe to form particles must be the first to form the most easily born particles, so hydrogen was born the first.
The reason is that the hydrogen nucleus has only one proton, which is the most easily formed particle, followed by helium. It is also a relatively simple particle, and it is born after hydrogen. Because hydrogen and helium are the most easily born elements, most of the matter in the universe is hydrogen and helium, which account for more than 99% of the total matter in the universe.
When hydrogen and helium were first born in the early universe, there was no innate condition for other elements to be born. The reason is that at that time, with the rapid expansion of the universe, the temperature of the universe was rapidly cooling. Many people may think that the expansion speed after the Big Bang is not fast, but in fact, this speed is beyond our imagination.
At the beginning of the big bang, the expansion speed of the universe was far faster than the speed of light, and it expanded to a very wide universe in an instant, so the time for the universe to maintain a very high temperature is very short. In such a short period of time, the collision of cosmic photons can only produce the most easily formed hydrogen and helium.
When the universe produced a lot of hydrogen and helium, the two elements were not idle, but constantly gathered to form stars. The birth of stars has laid an important foundation for the continued evolution of the universe. Another name for stars is the element processing plant, which is mainly composed of hydrogen. Inside the star is a nuclear fusion factory, which can fuse hydrogen to produce elements with larger number, such as carbon and oxygen.
However, most stellar nuclear fusion can only be refined until iron atoms stop. The reason is that the energy required for iron nuclear fusion is very large, which is far from what nuclear fusion can do. Some people may have said that if the fusion of stars can not produce iron atoms and so on, how did the hundreds of elements behind iron on the surface of elements come into being?
In fact, in the universe, the energy of nuclear fusion in stars is not the largest, and there are supernova explosion and neutron star collision fusion. I believe many people know that stars have lifespan. The larger the mass, the shorter the lifespan. And those massive stars, their life span is only tens of millions of years.
When the life of these massive stars comes to an end, there will be a supernova explosion, which can be said to be the most powerful energy release in the universe. With such a powerful energy release, elements can continue to be refined to produce higher-level heavy elements, so iron, aluminum, gold and other elements are born. Also capable of producing these heavy elements is the merging of neutron stars.
Whether it is supernova explosion or neutron star combination, they all originate from stars, which shows how important stars play in the evolution of the whole universe. Through the above analysis, we can also see that heavy metal elements must be very scarce in the universe, because the probability of supernova explosion or neutron star merger in the universe is very low.
So is the birth of cosmic life easy? In fact, it is not easy. After the big bang, many complex and mysterious things were born, but they are far less complex and mysterious than the birth of life. If life wants to be born, it can’t be born without all kinds of materials. It’s impossible for life to be born only by hydrogen, helium and other elements.
And a living body often needs to concentrate rich combinations of various elements. Without the combination of various elements, life could not be born. The reason why the earth is rich in various elements is that the solar system was born in the supernova explosion of the previous generation of stars.
Before the birth of the solar system, the position of the solar system is now a massive star. Later, when the life of the star came to an end, an ultra new explosion occurred, resulting in the production of various heavy elements. The dust and debris from the explosion have been reorganized to form the present solar system and the eight planets. And the earth is just in the habitable zone of the solar system, thus forming a rich ecological planet of elements.
A rich and stable ecosystem is very important for the birth of life. Without any conditions, it is difficult to give birth to early simple life. After the birth of life, it is not easy to evolve into intelligent life. We should know that the universe is not a completely safe environment, and there are a large number of asteroids in the solar system that can threaten the earth at any time.
And the earth is very lucky to have Jupiter’s big brother to protect it from the impact of a large number of asteroids. Even so, the birth of mankind is not inevitable. Before the birth of mankind, dinosaurs dominated the world. At that time, there was nothing wrong with mammals. In the 160 million year reign of dinosaurs, mammals had no living space.
But 65 million years ago, an asteroid hit the earth, and dinosaurs died out. After the extinction of dinosaurs, the era of mammals came. Only at this time can the ancestors of mankind hope to go out of the forest and carry out evolution and evolution. It can be seen that the birth of human beings is actually a coincidence, not an inevitable thing.
If no asteroid hit the Earth 65 million years ago, dinosaurs would not have died out, and they would still be the overlord of the earth. Then, given dinosaurs a long time to evolve, it is possible that the intelligent life on earth is not human beings, but dinosaurs. As long as there is enough time for any overlord to evolve, it is possible for any overlord to become an intelligent life.
It is the extinction of dinosaurs that led to the rise of mammals, which made it possible for human beings to step on the stage of history and become the overlord of the earth. Therefore, the birth of human beings is not inevitable, but a coincidence. Although it is a coincidence, since human beings are born, we should cherish this coincidence and make continuous efforts to develop, so that human civilization can continue to develop.
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