Is the earth the center of the universe? What would the universe look like 46.5 billion light years away?

This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.

63 years ago, with the successful launch of the first man-made satellite, it was announced that man had initially broken away from the shackles of the earth and began to go into space to explore the universe. Only when human beings really walk out of the earth can we know how huge the universe is and how small the earth is.

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When human beings see the vast universe, they are full of infinite interest in exploring the universe. However, due to the limitation of human science and technology, it is impossible for us to send spacecraft to explore every corner of the universe. In the scientific system of human beings, the speed of objects will not increase infinitely, but there is a limit to the speed of light.

In our opinion, the speed of light is too fast to describe, but in the face of the vast universe, the speed of light can only be regarded as tortoise speed. Even if human beings achieve the speed of light, we can’t get out of the galaxy. At most, we can only explore within a very limited range of the galaxy. To realize the dream of exploring the universe, we need to go faster than we can imagine. Maybe only the space transition and wormhole shuttle in science fiction can be realized.

Unfortunately, space transition and wormhole shuttling are only things that scientists guess, and whether they really exist is still unknown. If human beings are not able to travel freely through the universe at a super fast speed, does that mean that we are unable to explore and study the universe? In fact, it’s not. Although human’s flying speed is very limited, even the solar system can’t go out, but human has invented a powerful astronomical telescope.

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The astronomical telescope is more powerful than we can imagine, and it can observe the universe in a very wide and distant range. I believe many friends have heard of the observable universe range. This range is actually the space that can be explored by astronomical telescopes with the earth as the center. Specifically, it is the radius of 46.5 billion light years with the earth as the center.

Perhaps many people see that the observable universe of mankind has a radius of about 46.5 billion light years, and mistakenly believe that the earth is the center of the universe. But in fact, the earth is only the center of the observable universe, not the center of the universe. If we take another observation position, such as going to the center of the galaxy, then we can still see an observable range with a radius of 46.5 billion light years.

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Within this range, the earth is not the center of the observable range, and the center becomes the silver center. At the same time, our observable range is overlapped and different from the earth centered observable range. At that time, we will see more distant galaxies. So why is the range of human observability, the radius of the universe, only 46.5 billion light-years?

The reason is that the expansion speed of the universe is too fast. As we all know, the speed of light propagation is the speed of light, and human telescopes are basically optical telescopes. If we want to observe a galaxy or celestial body deep in the universe, we need to have a strong light source.

If the target object does not reflect any light, we will not be able to observe the planet. For example, black holes can devour light, so we can’t see most black holes in the universe. The reason why some supermassive black holes can be observed is because of the existence of black hole accretion disk. Accretion disk is a super bright region around the black hole, and the energy light emitted by accretion disk scatters to the universe, so we can observe them.

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Therefore, the black holes we can observe are only those supermassive black holes. Small and medium-sized black holes almost have no accretion disks. Even if they come to us, astronomical telescopes can’t observe them. Therefore, the farthest distance observed by an astronomical telescope must be where photons can come to the earth. But the universe is expanding faster than light.

As we all know, the universe originated from the singularity big bang 13.8 billion years ago. After the big bang, the universe began to expand rapidly, and the expansion speed was far faster than the speed of light. If the speed of expansion of the universe is equal to the speed of light, then the radius of the universe should be 13.8 billion light-years. However, with the ability of human observation, the current observation radius has reached 46.5 billion light-years. It can be seen that the expansion speed of the universe is faster than the speed of light, and the current observable range of human beings may only be the tip of the iceberg of the vast universe.

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Through a large number of observations and studies, scientists have found that galaxies are rapidly moving away from each other, and the more distant galaxies are, the faster they are moving away. Einstein’s theory of relativity tells us that the universe may be equivalent to a huge membrane structure. Celestial bodies and galaxies are attached to the membrane. When the huge sphere expands, these galaxies are also rapidly away from each other. The closer they get to the edge, the faster they are away from each other. This is similar to the situation of blowing balloons.

Of course, the expansion of the universe leads to the rapid distance between galaxies. Although the expansion speed of the universe is certain, the distance speed of galaxies is different due to their different positions. For every 100 million light-years of distance increase, the galaxy’s retrogradation speed will increase by 2150 km / s. as long as the distance is far enough, the speed will exceed the speed of light.

Once the speed of the galaxy far away exceeds the speed of light, the photons emitted from it will not be able to reach the earth, so our astronomical telescope will not receive such photons, and naturally we will not be able to see the target galaxy. This is the origin of the observable universe. Within the radius of 46.5 billion centered on the earth, the distant speed of galaxies does not exceed the speed of light, so the photons can still reach the earth and be observed by us.

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Once out of the radius of 46.5 billion, the speed of the galaxy away exceeds the speed of light. At this time, photons with only the speed of light can not come to us, and naturally we can not see the situation there. So what’s going to happen 46.5 billion light-years away? In fact, it’s not as mysterious as we thought. 46.5 billion light-years away, there are still a large number of galaxies, which are similar to the situation in our observable universe.

There are only two ways for human beings to observe distant galaxies in the future. One way is that we have developed a more powerful astronomical telescope, breaking through the original optical limit, and using another detection method beyond the speed of light to observe, we can see the universe far beyond the present scope, or even the edge of the universe. This kind of telescope uses space gravity technology, not optical technology, because optical technology can only detect within the speed of light, but space gravity detection can break through the speed limit of light.

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Another way is that we have mastered the technology of flying faster than light. At that time, we can sail further, and then continuously watch the universe. We can also step by step expand our vision and learn more about the universe. Of course, it’s not easy to realize superluminal flight technology, unless the supposed wormhole can be realized, then we can find wormholes in or near the solar system, and then go to distant galaxies through the wormhole to complete the exploration.

If wormholes do not exist in the universe, we may need to develop science and technology step by step to achieve superluminal flight, until we really master space science and technology and realize superluminal flight through the power of space.

Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.

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