In this paper, I participated in the series of solicitations of the great astronomy and Astronautics of Recordunkown science
At the beginning of 2019, there is a science fiction film which is very popular. It is wandering earth. In the film, in order to get rid of the fate of being destroyed by the sun, human beings have installed tens of thousands of planetary engines on the earth, so that it can break away from the shackles of the sun’s gravity and become a wandering planet.
After watching this film, many people will have such a question: do there really exist wandering planets in the universe? Maybe in the eyes of many people, planets orbit around stars, such as the eight planets in the solar system. The existing theory of planetary origin also believes that planets are formed by the aggregation of the remnants of star formation. For example, in the solar system, the mass of the sun reaches 99.86% of the total mass of the solar system. The reason is that the sun was born in the star cloud 5 billion years ago, absorbing most of the matter in the nebula, and the remaining material formed the following eight planets.
According to our current theory of planet formation, there must be stars around the planet, and the mass of the star is absolutely dominant. How can we let the planet out of its gravitational range? In this case, the planet can not be able to break away from the star and become a wave planet. Is this really the case? Is there really no wandering planet in the universe?
The real situation may be unexpected. There are not only wandering planets but also wandering stars in the universe. Both planets and stars may not have a fixed orbit, but wander in interstellar space. Scientists believe that there may not be many wandering planets in the universe. Because the wandering planet wanders in the starry space, there is no star around it or it is very far away from the star, so it is difficult to get the light of the star.
Therefore, vagrant planets are basically dark stars. With the current human observation technology, if the celestial bodies do not reflect light, it is difficult to find the existence of celestial bodies unless they are very close. Therefore, even if there are many wandering planets in the universe, our telescopes will hardly find them. However, there are always exceptions. Sometimes stray planets will be reflected by the light of the star when they wander near the star. At this time, the telescope may find these stray planets.
In recent years, scientists have also found some wandering planets through observation equipment. One romantic planet is the largest planet ever observed by human beings. It may be because its volume is too large and different, and it just wanders near a star, so it was observed by astronomical telescope.
This giant wandering planet is HD 100546b, about 320 light-years away from the earth. It can be seen that the mass and volume of this wandering planet are necessarily different from each other. In fact, it’s a gas giant planet with a diameter of 910000 km, 65% of the diameter of the sun and a volume of one fourth of the sun’s.
Maybe many people will say, is such a huge planet still a planet? Is it possible that the interior has been activated, nuclear fusion has become a small star? In fact, it is still a planet. Although its volume can hold more than 300000 earths, which is equivalent to 250 Jupiter, its mass is not high. Its mass is about 7.5 times that of Jupiter, which is 1 / 11 of the smallest known star mass and 1 / 125 of the mass of the sun.
The strength of celestial bodies in the universe is dominated by mass, which determines whether an celestial body is a planet or a star. Only when the mass reaches a certain level can it activate the internal nuclear fusion reaction to become a star, otherwise it will be a planet no matter how large it is. Of course, the mass of HD 100546b is much larger than that of the earth, about 2400 times.
Because of its large mass, it is also a wandering planet. So when it passes by some smaller stars, it will not be bound by the star’s gravity and end its wandering life. So how did these wandering planets form? Why do they choose to wander?
We all know that stars and planets are actually born in nebulae. After the big bang, many nebulae were formed, in which there was a lot of matter. And the celestial body is through the condensation of these materials and finally growing, forming stars and planets. Under normal circumstances, the earliest born object in the nebula has a congenital advantage, it can absorb more material until the activation of internal nuclear fusion to form stars.
However, there are still some nebulae because of their small size, their internal bodies do not have enough material to absorb, and finally they can not activate the nuclear fusion reaction inside the celestial bodies, they can not become stars, they can only become planets.
Because these nebulae only form planets but not stars, there is no gravitational binding around the planets, and finally they become wandering planets, wandering in interstellar space. The mass and volume of such wandering planets are generally large. HD 100546b, for example, may be formed independently in a star cloud and become a wandering planet after its formation.
There are also some small bodies in the wandering planets. This kind of planet is different from HD 100546b in the formation environment. It probably formed a star system. However, due to major changes in the galaxy, it was ejected by the star and became a wandering planet. For example, multi star systems are prone to stray planets.
The reason is that there are more than two stars in a multi star system. If there is a massive star, its life is short. When the life of a massive star reaches the end and a supernova explosion occurs, the planets in its galaxy may be thrown out by its huge impact and become wandering planets.
Maybe some people think that it’s good to be a wandering planet, and you can roam freely in interstellar space. But in fact, for the birth of life and civilization, once the planet becomes a wandering planet, the possibility of it becoming a living planet or even a civilized planet in the future is basically cut off. The birth of life needs suitable temperature and stable orbital environment, while wandering planets wander around.
Far away from the star wandering, its surface temperature will be very low, is a frozen planet. When it wanders near a star, its surface temperature will be very high, and it will become a purgatory planet. Such an environment is like ice and fire. Just imagine how life can be born in such an unstable planetary environment.
Friends who have seen “wandering earth” all know that when the earth began to leave its present orbit, the earth became a frozen planet. The surface temperature was so low that human beings could not survive, so they could only live in underground cities. Therefore, for the earth, we do not want it wandering, only stable orbital environment can have a stable ecological environment, can be suitable for human survival.
Of course, the future fate of the earth may really develop like that in wandering earth. When the sun expands into a red giant in billions of years, threatening the survival of the earth and human beings, we will have to make the earth a wandering planet through the power of science and technology, and leave the solar system for other galaxies to survive.
Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.