In this paper, I participated in the series of solicitations of the great astronomy and Astronautics of Recordunkown science
In 13.8 billion years, a singularity had a big bang, in which the universe was born. After 13.8 billion years of expansion, no one knows how big the universe is today. But we know that there are countless kinds of celestial bodies in the vast universe, among which stars and planets are the most common ones, and they generally exist in two corners of the universe.
The earth where human beings live is a rocky planet. Scientists have been studying and exploring how the planet formed. The common view in the scientific community is that the planet may originate from the material left by the star, that is to say, after the formation of the star, the unused residual material finally formed the planet.
Take the solar system for example. The solar system has eight planets, and the solar system is formed by the birth of the sun. Five billion years ago, this part of the solar system was still a nebula, with no stars or planets, but a lot of dust and matter. At this time, a small celestial body began to appear in the center of the nebula. This small celestial body was first born. After its birth, it began to absorb and condense the surrounding material.
With the increasing of its mass, its gravity becomes stronger and stronger, and the speed and range of absorbing material become wider and wider. Finally, one day when its mass reaches a certain degree, the core of the celestial body begins to undergo qualitative change, and the nuclear fusion reaction is activated. Since then, the celestial body has evolved into a star. After star formation, it no longer absorbs the surrounding material, but at this time, 99.86% of the dust and material inside the nebula has been absorbed by the sun, and the remaining 1.14% of the material forms eight planets and other small objects.
The answer can be found from the observation and calculation of the mass of the solar system by scientists. The mass of the sun really accounts for 99.86% of the mass of the whole solar system. If the origin of planets is the formation of stellar remnants, then we can draw a conclusion: there will be no planets near the stars, which can be seen in the solar system. Although mercury is the closest planet to the sun, it is still far away from the sun.
If the planet is very close to the sun, the surface temperature of mercury is not as high as 400 degrees Celsius, which may reach several thousand degrees. Scientists have always believed that the existing theory of planet formation is correct, and by observing some stellar systems around the solar system, it is also found that the distances between planets and stars in other galaxies also conform to the existing theory of planet formation.
But the discovery of a new exoplanet has broken the existing theory of planetary origin. What’s the matter? It turns out that scientists have discovered a planet named Kepler 78B 400 light-years away from the earth. After this planet was discovered by scientists, many scientists were surprised and said: This is a planet that should not exist. Why do you say that?
Because Kepler 78B is too close to the main star, according to the current planetary theory, it is formed by the remnants of star formation, so there can be no planets in very close orbit to the star. If there are planets, it means that our existing theory of the origin of stars is not completely correct, it may be completely wrong.
Kepler 78B is such an incredible planet that should not have existed. It is only one fortieth of the distance between mercury and the sun. Such a close distance makes the surface temperature of Kepler 78B far exceed that of mercury, reaching an amazing 2700 degrees Celsius. It’s about the same temperature as the surface of some red dwarfs, and it’s just a rocky planet.
According to the existing planetary theory generally recognized by the scientific community, it is impossible to have a planet in such a low earth orbit from the main star. The reason is that in the process of early star formation, the surrounding material was absorbed by it, how could it leave excess material to form planets. But the universe is such a mysterious existence, often think impossible things to the universe, everything is possible.
This planet that should not exist has appeared. As for its formation, some people speculate that it will form at a place far away from the star, and then be pulled to its present position by the force of the star? Through analysis, scientists believe that this possibility is almost zero. If it was pulled over by a star after its formation in the distance, it would be difficult for it to form its present stable orbit.
A distant planet is pulled close to itself by the main star, and the high probability result is that it will fall directly into the star instead of forming a stable planet around the star. Scientists ruled out the possibility that Kepler 78B formed in a far orbit, so there is only one answer, that is, it formed itself around the star. Some scientists believe that it is possible that the embryo of the planet has been born during the formation of the main star.
However, the predecessor of the star has larger mass, stronger gravity and faster absorption speed. Finally, the mass reaches the degree of internal nuclear fusion activation, forming a star. And the early planetary embryo around it also absorbed a certain amount of material to form a planet in the process of grabbing material from the main star. Of course, this conclusion is only a guess of current scientists. There is no definite answer to how it came into being. More research and exploration are needed in the future.
Anyway, the discovery of Kepler 78B has once again improved people’s understanding of the universe, which is of great help to the improvement of planetary theory. It is possible that our current planetary theory is not necessarily wrong, but at least not perfect. It needs to be summarized and discovered in the future space exploration. Kepler 78B’s future has been doomed due to the formation of nearby stars.
The distance from the star is so close, and the surface temperature has reached more than 2700 degrees Celsius. Under such high temperature, the material on the planet’s surface is constantly evaporating. It may not take many years for it to disappear around the star. If we had not found it, we might not have known that this galaxy had ever produced such an incredible planet.
The appearance of Kepler 78B may not be a special case. It may have appeared in other star systems, but it is too close to the star, so it is difficult to observe and easy to be ignored. More importantly, the time from birth to disappearance is very short. Even if such a planet is born, it may soon be evaporated by high temperature.
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