There are countless celestial bodies in the vast universe, including our common stars. Besides planets, there are also some mysterious and powerful celestial bodies, such as neutron stars, pulsars, black holes and so on. When it comes to the dominant celestial body in the universe, I believe many people will think of black holes. Yes, mysterious black holes can be called the most powerful celestial body in the universe.
At the beginning, black hole was a kind of celestial body that scientists suspected. However, later, through observation, it was found that there was a black hole in the universe, which was a mysterious celestial body with no obvious physical structure and a surprisingly large mass. This year, scientists released the first picture of human black hole, and there was no doubt about the existence of black hole.
Although scientists have published the first picture of human black hole, our understanding and cognition of black hole may not even be superficial. At present, we know almost nothing except that black hole is the product of supernova explosion of massive star and it has super strong gravity. Is black hole a common object in the universe?
Due to the powerful phagocytic ability of black hole, the objects or matter close to it can not escape. Even if light, a material whose speed reaches the speed of light, is close to the black hole, it will be swallowed by its super strong gravity and can not escape. Just so, it is very difficult to see the black hole. Under normal circumstances, ordinary stars cannot be seen by human technology.
The reason why we can find some black holes is that some supermassive black holes have strong gravity and phagocytic power. For example, the black hole a * in the center of the Milky Way galaxy has a mass of 4 million solar masses. Such a strong gravity will tear up the objects or matter close to it and form an accretion disk around the black hole. A large number of materials in the accretion disk rub against each other and can emit extremely bright light. X-rays can also be emitted from the two poles of the black hole. In this way, we can find the existence of the black hole.
Of course, such black holes with obvious accretion disks are often supermassive black holes. Ordinary black holes do not have such obvious accretion disks, so naturally we can’t directly observe them. So the black holes that human beings can observe now are supermassive black holes that are far away from the earth. For example, the first black hole photo released by human beings is a supermassive black hole 65 million light-years away from the earth.
Although the black holes observed by human beings are only some supermassive black holes, it does not mean that the number of black holes in the universe is relatively small. Scientists speculate that black holes may also be a common celestial body in the universe. There may be at least 100 million black holes of different sizes in the Milky way. However, because there is no obvious accretion disk in these black holes, it is extremely difficult to find them by current observation methods.
Black holes are famous for their phagocytosis. They seem to be able to consume endless matter in the world. Black holes grow by phagocytizing matter. Who is the fastest growing black hole in the universe? Some people may think that the black hole at the center of the galaxy is big enough. Will it be the fastest growing black hole in the universe? Of course not. In fact, the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy is not as active as we think. If its phagocytic ability is particularly strong and active, the first black hole photo of mankind will not be the black hole 65 million light-years away.
It is precisely because the supermassive black hole in the center of the galaxy is not particularly active that we can not see its true appearance. On the contrary, it is not as clear as the black hole 65 million light-years away. Some astronomers speculate that every 1000 years, Sagittarius A * can eat a solar mass of material, we can also think that it can eat a star as big as the sun every 1000 years.
The phagocytosis speed is relatively slow among the supermassive black holes in the universe, and the fastest phagocytosis black hole observed by human beings at present should be a black hole numbered SMSs j215728.21-360215.1, commonly known as bullock. It is also the brightest known quasar, about 12 billion light-years away from our earth, with a mass of about 20 billion suns.
Through observation and calculation, scientists found that the central black hole of this quasar can devour one solar mass every two days, and its total mass can increase by 1% every million years. It is the fastest growing black hole known, which makes its accretion disk very large and extremely bright. Even if it is 10 billion light-years away from the earth, it still can’t hide its light and can be observed by human beings.
We all know that the speed of light in the universe is the speed of light, because we can receive the light of the accretion disk of this supermassive black hole, which was 12 billion years ago. Now, after 10 billion years of phagocytosis, how strong will it be? Scientists estimate that its current mass could be as high as 2400 billion solar masses.
We need to know that the total mass of the galaxy is only 150 million solar masses, and the mass of this supermassive black hole may have surpassed that of the black hole. What a huge number it is. It’s beyond our imagination. Through this, scientists have a new understanding of the mysterious objects of black holes.
It seems that a black hole will never be full. Whenever there are celestial bodies or matter entering its accretion disk, it will become its food in the near future. Supermassive black hole is often the center of a large galaxy, its strong gravity will attract a lot of stars and other celestial bodies, matter around it.
Therefore, scientists have observed that there are many stars near the center of the Milky Way galaxy. In other places, you may see that the distance between stars is very far, basically more than a few light years. The closer to the center of the Milky way, the shorter the distance between stars, the higher the density of stars. Therefore, the center of the galaxy is also the place where the resources of the galaxy are most concentrated.
Bullock black hole is the largest black hole observed by scientists in the universe. We don’t know how it is now. Because it’s 12 billion light-years away, it takes 12 billion years for light waves to reach the earth. It is possible that the black hole has grown to a point that we can’t imagine. It is also possible that the matter of the celestial bodies around it has been swallowed up by it, and without the phagocytosis of matter, its mass will not expand any more. To understand all this, we can’t do it with the current human technology.
Of course, for observing black holes in the universe, what scientists want to understand more is what a black hole is and what is inside it? For black hole, people have many kinds of conjectures, some say that it is actually a wormhole, others say that it is a space-time channel through which we can reach other parallel universes or travel through space-time. Only when human science and technology are really powerful in the future, and we can get close to or enter the black hole, can we understand. In fact, all our research on black holes is still speculation.
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