Mariana Trench is the deepest part of the ocean. What’s next? Has it penetrated the earth’s crust?

The earth is the home where human beings have lived for millions of years. Half a century ago, with the help of science and technology, human beings finally realized their dream of flying to the sky, went out of the earth and began to explore the universe. Maybe many people think that human beings have been able to preliminarily explore space, so they should have a lot of knowledge about the earth, their home for survival. Is this really the case?

In fact, human beings don’t know much about their homeland, although we can quickly travel all over the world, get out of the earth quickly, and know what the earth looks like when we stand in space. However, we know very little about the earth. With the current science and technology of human beings, the only place where we can understand the earth comprehensively is the surface where human beings live.

Through satellites, we can have a more detailed understanding of the earth’s surface. It can be said that with satellites, 90% of the earth’s surface has no secrets. But the earth is not just a surface. The oceans, which cover 71% of the earth’s surface, are far more mysterious and complex than the earth’s surface. Only about 5% of human beings know about the oceans, and 95% of them are unknown to us. In particular, the deep sea is a blind area for human exploration. In addition to the oceans, there is one of the most mysterious regions of the earth, which is the interior of the earth.

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If you want to ask the place closest to the interior of the earth, I believe many people know that it is the ocean. Yes, the ocean can be said to be the place closest to the interior of the earth. The deepest part of the sea is the Mariana Trench. I believe many people have heard of this place. It is located in the northeast of the Philippines, at the bottom of the Pacific Ocean near the Mariana Islands, from iwang island in the north to Yap Island in the southwest. In the north, there are Aleutian, Thousand Island and Ogasawara trenches, and in the south, there are new Britain and New Hebrides trenches, with a total length of 2550 km and an average width of 70 km. It is estimated that the trench has been formed for 60 million years.

The deepest part of the trench is 6-11 kilometers, which is the deepest known ocean. It has high water pressure, complete darkness, low temperature, low oxygen content, and lack of food resources. Therefore, it has become one of the worst areas on earth. It reaches 11000 meters in depth, and the whole mount Everest will be completely drowned if it is put down.

The Mariana Trench is undoubtedly the closest place to the earth’s interior, so where is it going to penetrate the crust? I believe many people know that the earth’s interior can be divided into three layers, the crust layer, the mantle layer and the core. The thickness of each layer is also different. The thinnest layer is the top layer of the earth’s crust connecting the earth’s surface, with an average thickness of about 17 km, or 17 000 M.

The middle layer is the mantle layer, which is much thicker than the crust, about 2900 km. The mantle can be subdivided into three parts: the upper part is the upper mantle, with a thickness of 400 km; the middle part is the transition zone, with a thickness of 300 km; the lower part is the lower mantle, with the deepest layer, with a thickness of 2200 km. The temperature and pressure of the mantle are very high. The temperature at the bottom can reach 4000 degrees Celsius and the pressure can reach 1.4 million earth atmospheres.

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The center of the earth’s interior is the core, which is also the thickest area of the earth’s interior, about 3400 km. The outer core is about 2200 km thick and is composed of iron and nickel. It is molten under the action of high temperature. The inland core, about 1200 km thick, is also composed of iron and nickel. However, the inland core is not a molten liquid, but a solid state.

Many people may ask, how can iron and nickel become solid when the temperature of the earth’s core is over 5000 degrees Celsius? In fact, the main reason is that the pressure here is too high, reaching 3.5 million times the atmospheric pressure on the surface. We know that the critical points of the three shapes of objects are all affected by atmospheric pressure. The temperature of deep sea is very low, but it is still liquid. The reason for this is that the atmospheric pressure of deep sea is very high, so the boiling point and freezing point have changed greatly.

The same is true of the inland core. If it is at a high temperature of 5500 degrees under an atmospheric pressure on the surface, any metal can melt. But at the core of the earth, the pressure is too high, so although the temperature of the core is very high, iron and nickel can only exist in solid form.

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After understanding the structure of the earth’s interior, let’s take a look at what’s underneath the Mariana Trench? At this time, I believe many people have understood that the deepest part of the Mariana Trench is only 11000 meters, far from breaking through the crust, and it is still in the position of the crust. It’s only a few thousand meters down that we can really break through the crust and enter the mantle.

Although the Mariana Trench is still in the crustal layer, which is a long distance away from the mantle layer, because the Mariana Trench is a plate subduction zone, and the submarine geological movement is very active, the sea water here can still enter the mantle layer through the subduction zone. Scientists have found that hundreds of millions of tons of seawater enter the mantle through the Mariana Trench every year.

These seawater entering the mantle layer evaporates into free water molecules under the action of high temperature, and then returns to the earth’s surface through volcanic and other geological activities, forming a water cycle. It can be seen that the water cycle of the earth is not only the cycle of the earth’s surface and atmosphere, but also the water cycle of the earth’s interior and surface. It was once speculated that the water storage capacity of the earth’s interior may be larger than that of the earth’s surface. In fact, this speculation is also possible.

Of course, for the situation of the earth’s interior, the current human technology can only detect through the form of seismic waves. If you want to really go deep into the earth’s crust, the crust layer or even the earth’s core, you need very strong materials that can withstand high temperature and high pressure. And human science and technology can not develop such materials.

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So, for what’s going on inside the earth, it’s still more of a guess. Only in the future, we have the ability and technology to really send probes into the earth’s interior, may be able to solve this series of mysteries. The mystery of the earth’s interior is also related to the earth’s ecology and the secrets of the earth’s magnetic field.

We all know that the earth has a perfect ecosystem and a strong magnetic field. How did such a perfect ecosystem come into being? Scientists speculate that it has a lot to do with the circulation of the earth’s interior, especially the strong magnetic field, which is a powerful shield for life on earth. The formation and operation of the magnetic field is closely related to the earth’s interior.

Only when we have solved the mystery of the earth’s interior can we cope with all kinds of possible natural disasters in the future. You know, the magnetic field is not permanent. Mars is a very similar earth like planet to the earth, but it has no magnetic field, so Mars becomes very desolate. So how did Mars’ magnetic field disappear? This mystery may have to be solved through the interior of the planet.

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As long as we have solved the mystery of the earth’s interior and revealed the relationship between the magnetic field and the earth’s core, we will be able to solve the mystery of the disappearance of Mars’ magnetic field. Or in the future, we can go deep into Mars and reactivate the magnetic field through the power of science and technology. In this way, Mars will have its own ecosystem again, and with human transformation, it will become our second livable home.

Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.

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