After human beings go out of the earth, there are two important tasks, one is to explore the existence of extraterrestrial life, the other is to find a second earth suitable for human survival. Compared with the search for extraterrestrial life, the second task is very important for the future of mankind.
As we all know, the ecological environment of the earth is deteriorating with the rapid development of a large number of industries, and this deterioration trend is difficult to control. Although we all know that the earth’s deteriorating ecology is caused by a large number of industrial development, we have no way, because we can’t stop all industries to protect the earth’s ecology. In that case, the development of human civilization will also stop.
If the ecological deterioration of the earth can not be controlled, then in the limited future, the earth will probably become a planet unsuitable for human survival and become very desolate. What should human beings do at that time? The only way out is to emigrate. It is precisely because of this worry that scientists continue to explore and find the second earth for the sake of the future of mankind.
The universe is vast and vast. Among the countless unknown galaxies, there are probably earth like planets that are very similar to or even exactly the same as the earth. But such planets are outside the solar system. They are less than a few light years away from the earth, more than a few hundred, thousands or even tens of thousands of light years away. If human beings want to achieve interstellar migration, they must first become an interstellar civilization and have the ability to fly at least at sub light speed.
However, according to the deterioration of the earth’s ecology, we may not wait for the day when mankind becomes an interstellar civilization, and the earth’s ecology may collapse completely. Before we became an interstellar civilization, the immigrant planet we could choose could only be found in the solar system, and the solar system had no natural second earth suitable for human survival, so we could only choose one planet to transform. And the planet scientists chose is known as Mars.
There are three planets in the habitable zone of the solar system: Venus, earth and Mars. Venus has a very harsh environment, with a surface temperature of more than 460 degrees Celsius and a very thick carbon dioxide atmosphere and acid rain layer. It is very difficult to transform such a bad planet, but Mars is different. Mars is the neighbor of the earth. Although it is desolate, it is not bad enough to survive.
As long as mankind’s scientific and technological strength goes one step further, it will be able to carry out a series of transformations on Mars, making it the second earth suitable for human survival. In order to transform Mars and meet the survival needs of future human migration, a kind of material is essential, that is a lot of liquid water.
We all know that water is the source of life. For life on earth, it is impossible to live without water. 70% of the substances in human tissues and cells are water. We can not eat for three days, but we can not drink a drop of water for three days. It will kill people. Therefore, there are other conditions for the immigrant planet that human beings will choose in the future. Only water, the material needed for life, can not be lacked.
So is there water on Mars? Through the probe’s continuous exploration, we see a very desolate Martian surface, similar to the earth’s desert. There was sand everywhere. At first, scientists thought that Mars was unlikely to have water through the observation of the probe. However, with the deepening of exploration, scientists have more new knowledge about Mars, one of which is the discovery of a large amount of water on Mars.
We basically can’t see water on the surface of Mars, but later the probe found a large number of ancient river beds on the surface of Mars. Through the discovery of these river beds, scientists speculated that there was a large amount of liquid water in ancient Mars, and it may still be a huge ocean like the earth. But then the ecology of Mars changed dramatically, the magnetic field disappeared, the atmosphere disappeared, resulting in the loss of water on the surface.
If Mars was a liquid ocean planet a long time ago, even if the surface water was lost due to the drastic ecological changes, it is unlikely that all the water would be lost, and some water would be preserved. There are mainly two places where water can be preserved, one is the underground water under the surface, the other is the colder polar regions.
Therefore, scientists have focused on the North Pole in the exploration of Martian water. Through the continuous efforts of the probe, there are really major discoveries. Through advanced explorers, scientists first saw a large number of ice sheets in the north pole of Mars. In the picture of the north pole of Mars taken by the orbiter, we can clearly see a circle of white parts above, that is, the ice sheet of the North Pole.
Later, through more advanced radar, scientists detected a large amount of water ice stored in the ice sheet. The amount of ice in the reservoir is huge. If all the ice melts and covers the earth’s surface, the whole planet will be transformed into a “Mercury” from then on. Radar detection found that there is a huge reservoir 2000 meters below the north pole of Mars, which is a huge reservoir formed by multi-layer mixing of sand and solid water after hundreds of millions of years.
These observations are based on a device on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter called the Sharad shadow radar. Using Sharad’s radar waves that can penetrate the earth’s surface, the observation data also reveal that the horizontal plate rich in ice is alternately sandwiched with the sand layer. In terms of volume, the distribution of water ice accounts for 61% – 88%.
Now scientists know that Mars looks very desolate, but there is still a lot of water stored on it. It can also be seen that the water resources on Mars may have been richer than that on earth a long time ago. The discovery of a large amount of water on Mars is great good news for human beings, which shows that there will be no shortage of important living materials for human beings after migrating to Mars in the future.
And with the support of a lot of water, the success rate of Mars transformation will be much higher in the future. As long as we can melt these large amounts of water ice in the Arctic, and then let it cover the surface of Mars, we can effectively transform the Martian environment. Even we can plant a lot of plants on Mars. As long as there is water, these plants can survive, and then continuously release oxygen, gradually changing the atmospheric structure of Mars.
Moreover, with the existence of a large amount of water, it can form a water cycle with the atmosphere, continuously increase the thickness of the atmosphere, and gradually form an ecological cycle system like the earth. Of course, the premise to achieve all this is to raise the overall temperature of Mars. Only when the temperature rises can the water ice continue to melt, and it is not difficult to achieve this.
As long as human science and technology go further, maybe we can build a huge solar sail in Mars orbit to reflect sunlight to heat Mars. If human beings have realized controllable nuclear fusion technology, the matter will be even simpler. If we make an artificial sun and put it directly on Mars orbit, the temperature problem of Mars will be solved naturally.
It can be seen that the success rate of human transformation of Mars is very high in the future, and it is possible that Mars will become the first planet for human migration in the near future. A large number of human beings on earth will migrate to Mars. Of course, migrating to Mars is only the first step for human beings to immigrate to other planets, which is a helpless choice before human beings become an interstellar civilization.
As long as human beings become interstellar civilization, we will not be trapped in the solar system, but can go out of the solar system to explore other interstellar space. At that time, we may find many natural planets suitable for human survival, and interstellar migration will begin. As long as the scientific and technological strength is strong enough, human steps will spread all over the galaxy and the universe. We are looking forward to that day.
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