This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
There are eight planets in the solar system. Although there are three planets in the same habitable zone, only one living planet has been found. Why are the planets in the same habitable zone able to receive the sun’s suitable light and temperature, but their fate is totally different?
After humans walk out of the earth, nature wants to understand why Venus and Mars are not living planets? Scientists first explored Venus, because its geological structure is most similar to earth, known as the sister planet of the earth, and it is closer to the earth, so the probe can arrive faster. So scientists chose Venus as their initial target.
However, when the probe reached the orbit of Venus, it found that Venus was even worse than originally thought. Its surface temperature was as high as 460 degrees Celsius, and it had a thicker and more complex atmosphere than the earth, including an acid rain layer. Venus’s thick atmosphere blocks the detector’s eyes. Coupled with its harsh environment and super strong atmosphere, it is difficult for the detector to successfully land on the surface. Even if it lands, it can only survive for 2 hours at most.
Scientists found that if they wanted to explore Venus, they could not do it with the existing human technology, so they finally gave up Venus and focused on Mars, another habitable planet. The environment of Mars is much better than that of Venus, and the atmosphere is relatively thin. The probe can also see some conditions on the surface of Mars in orbit. At the same time, the probe can also land on Venus for long-term mobile exploration. Can learn more about the situation.
Through decades of continuous exploration of Mars, scientists have mastered a lot of information about the surface of Mars. Based on this information, scientists speculate that Mars may have been a planet with a lot of liquid water on its surface, just like the earth a long time ago. It is possible that there was life on Mars in the past, but later, for some unknown reason, it led to the massive loss of water resources on the surface of Mars and turned into a desert like Mars.
Although the surface of Mars is now covered with sand and there is no water except the two poles, we can still imagine that the surface of Mars was once an oasis through some ancient river beds found on the surface of Mars by the probe. There may be life if there is water, so there may have been life on Mars in ancient times.
Scientists have basically determined that there used to be a lot of water resources on the surface of Mars, so how did a lot of water on the surface of Mars lose? Scientists have always wanted to understand this. Only by understanding how water on the surface of Mars is lost, can we have a better way to transform Mars in the future.
According to a new scientific report, scientists have found that Mars has a special water cycle system, which may uncover the mystery of the disappearance of water resources on Mars. What’s the matter? The newly discovered water cycle is different from the water cycle system we used to understand. The reason why it was not discovered in the past is that this water cycle system does not often appear.
According to the scientific report, this new “water cycle” will only appear every two earth years (about 687 days of Mars’ revolution). Only at this time can we observe its particularity. In the two-year cycle of Martian summer, the water vapor in the southern hemisphere will rise from the stratosphere to the upper atmosphere of Mars. There, the wind carries the noble gases to the north pole, some of the water vapor decays and escapes into space, and the rest sinks near the poles.
This observation can also explain why there is water ice in the north pole of Mars. Of course, this is not unusual. The water vapor reaches the atmosphere and then cools down to the ground. We can understand this water cycle. However, the water cycle system on Mars is different every two earth years, because in the normal water cycle system, the water vapor rising from the surface will basically cool down to the ground again when it reaches the atmosphere, and will not be lost to space.
There is a cold air barrier in the middle atmosphere of Mars. How does water vapor penetrate the barrier of the middle atmosphere and reach a higher atmosphere, and then be decomposed and lost by the solar wind? This discovery also makes scientists understand why Mars used to have a large amount of water resources, and then the continuous loss has become such a reason. It is possible that this special water circulation system exists.
Scientists infer that Mars may have lost at least 80% of its water resources through this special water circulation system. After water vapor reaches the upper atmosphere, it is decomposed into hydrogen (H) and hydroxyl (OH) by ultraviolet radiation from the sun, and hydrogen escapes into space irretrievably. After a long time, the water on the surface of Mars kept losing in this way, which made Mars become so desolate.
So what’s the case with Mars, a special water cycle that happens every two years? Through simulation experiments, scientists found that there is a “pump” phenomenon in the Martian atmosphere. When water vapor reaches the atmosphere, under normal circumstances, due to the low temperature of the middle atmosphere, the water vapor arriving here will cool and solidify, and then land on the ground, without penetrating the middle atmosphere.
However, the Martian atmosphere at a particular time, there will be atmospheric “pump” phenomenon, water vapor close to the middle atmosphere is pumped by this “pump”, directly through the middle atmosphere, to the upper atmosphere. The upper atmosphere here is basically close to space. The strong solar wind will directly decompose water molecules and turn them into space.
Of course, at present, scientists have no definite conclusion about how this special water cycle “pump” phenomenon of Mars atmosphere is formed. And it only appears in the summer of every two earth years, so there is less data to be observed. However, scientists attach great importance to the new discovery of Mars. Once we can uncover the cause of this “pump” phenomenon, maybe we can change this special water circulation system, so that the only part of water left on Mars will not be lost.
Moreover, the special water circulation system that occurs once every two years will produce more water vapor at this time, which may come from under the surface of Mars. They appear in large quantities at a specific time and evaporate into the atmosphere. If they are not lost to space, the water vapor will fall to the surface. Over time, there will be more and more water on the surface of Mars, which will play an important role in human collection and utilization in the future.
Mars is also the second home expected by scientists. To make Mars a new home, we need a lot of water. Without water, human beings can’t survive, and now there is more and more evidence on Mars that there is still a lot of water under the surface. With a large amount of water resources, the future Mars reconstruction plan can be successful, and human migration to Mars in the future can be realized.
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