The universe is vast, with numerous celestial bodies. In addition to the familiar stars and planets, there are also some special mysterious celestial bodies, such as black holes.
Black hole can be said to be the most mysterious object in the universe. Einstein’s theory of relativity first proposed the conjecture of black hole. Later, scientists also discovered the existence of black hole through cosmic observation.
One of the biggest characteristics of black hole is its super phagocytic ability, which is related to its super powerful mass. The powerful mass creates a strong gravity, which makes black hole have super phagocytic ability. It can devour any matter in the universe, even light. As long as the matter enters its horizon, it is difficult to escape the fate of being swallowed by the black hole.
Due to the super phagocytic ability of black holes, light can not escape, so it is difficult for us to directly observe the existence of black holes. However, those supermassive black holes, due to their strong phagocytic ability, continue to tear up the surrounding celestial bodies. The debris around the black hole forms an accretion disk. The materials in the accretion disk friction with each other, producing strong heat and radiation. These radiation spread outward, making the accretion disk a dazzling existence in the universe.
It is because of the existence of black hole accretion disk that we are lucky to observe those supermassive black holes. The first black hole photo in human history is a supermassive black hole 54 million light-years away. The black hole photo we see is actually its accretion disk, and in the center of the accretion disk is a black hole. Scientists don’t know what’s going on inside. It’s the black hole The biggest mystery of black holes.
For a long time, people’s understanding of black holes is that they just devour and obtain material, never eject material. However, the great physicist Hawking put forward a different point of view. Hawking thought that black holes not only blindly get material, but also emit material. This theory is called Hawking radiation.
After Hawking radiation was put forward, many people don’t think so. They think that black holes don’t radiate material outwards. They are vacuum cleaners, which can only constantly devour material. However, some scientists still support Hawking’s point of view and agree that black holes radiate matter, which will eventually absorb enough energy and mass from black holes to make them disappear.
Whether scientific theory is correct or not needs to find evidence. A new study on black holes proves that Hawking’s radiation theory is correct. The new study is the result of scientists simulating black hole scenarios in the laboratory. Physicist Jeff Steinhauer and his colleagues used an extremely cold gas called Bose Einstein condensation to simulate the horizon of a black hole. A black hole has an invisible boundary, and nothing can escape as long as it reaches the horizon.
Scientists have created a pair of flowing air streams. They put a drop to form a “waterfall” of gas. When the gas flows through the waterfall, it converts enough potential energy into kinetic energy to make it flow faster than the speed of sound. It’s like you’re trying to swim upstream, the current is faster than you. You feel like you’re going forward, but you’re actually going backward. It’s similar to a photon in a black hole trying to leave the black hole, but being attracted by gravity in the wrong way.
In many eyes, the universe is an empty vacuum, which is considered empty. However, the uncertainty of quantum mechanics shows that the vacuum is also full of virtual particles, which fly in or out in the form of matter antimatter pairs. Vacuum is not empty has been widely recognized by the scientific community.
Normally, when a pair of virtual particles appear, they will annihilate each other immediately. However, if the matter is close to the black hole, extreme gravity will pull the particles apart. When one particle shoots into space, another particle is absorbed by the black hole. The absorbed particles have negative energy, which reduces the energy and mass of the black hole.
Swallow enough of these virtual particles and the black hole will eventually evaporate. The escaping particles are called Hawking radiation. Because the radiation is very weak, it is impossible for us to observe it in space now, but scientists have found it in the laboratory. Hawking radiation is proved to be correct by scientists through experiments, so what’s its use?
In fact, Hawking radiation plays a very important role in human research and exploration of black holes. Once, people always thought that black holes are the overlord of the universe, which are indestructible and will last forever. Once a massive black hole appears near a celestial body or galaxy, it will be an epic disaster.
The earth is the home of human survival, and the solar system is the home of the earth. Although we have not found the existence of black holes near the solar system at present, no one can guarantee that there will be a massive black hole near the solar system in the future. If there is one, the solar system may be swallowed up and the earth will no longer exist.
Hawking radiation tells us that a black hole is not indestructible, it can also continuously radiate material outward, a lot of energy and mass will be taken away, and most of them will disappear. Scientists speculate that there may be 1 billion black holes in the Milky way. These black holes can not be observed and found by human science and technology. We can only find the supermassive black hole in the center of the Milky way.
There may be a large number of large and small black holes in the universe, but these black holes will not exist forever. Some small and medium-sized black holes may disappear slowly through Hawking radiation, and only some large and super massive black holes may exist for a longer time. According to Hawking’s radiation theory, the black hole in the center of the galaxy may disappear in the infinite future.
Hawking radiation also shows us a way to eliminate black holes. A black hole can take away part of its energy and mass by swallowing virtual particles. It can only destroy the black hole by pouring enough virtual particles into the black hole. If human beings can master the collection technology of virtual particles, we will not have to worry about the threat of black holes to the solar system and the earth in the future.
If there is a black hole in the solar system or near the earth, we can pour a large number of virtual particles into the black hole. The mass and energy of the black hole are constantly reduced, and the black hole without energy and mass will naturally collapse and disappear.
There are too many mysteries about black holes for human beings. I believe that with the rapid development of science and technology, we will approach black holes or even explore them in the future. We will also uncover the mysteries of black holes one by one and let them serve human beings.
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