The earth is a very rich life planet. Since the birth of simple life 4 billion years ago, after billions of years of long evolution, countless kinds of creatures have been born. However, due to the continuous changes of the earth’s ecology, especially the occurrence of the five mass extinctions, most of the biological species have disappeared.
Even 65 million years ago, the dinosaurs that dominated the earth for 160 million years were doomed to extinction. And if we want to see the elegant demeanor of ancient creatures, we can only find some ancient fossils. What these fossils present to us is only an outline of ancient creatures, and we don’t know the specific information at all.
Scientists have been expecting to really see the relatively intact ancient creatures. This dream can’t be realized in fossils. Is it possible to realize it in other places? Some people may think that time is a merciless knife. It can erase all traces of all living things and leave us some fossils for reference. It’s not bad. Do you still want to see real objects? How is that possible?
But in fact, the world is so magical, often impossible things will always appear inadvertently. If you want to ask which place in the world is most likely to preserve relatively complete ancient biological remains, it must be the ancient permafrost. Although the average temperature of the earth is relatively mild, it does not mean that there are no extremely cold places on the earth.
I believe many people know that the north and south poles of the earth are very cold places, which are the specific places where the temperature of each planet is relatively low. Even Venus, whose surface temperature is as high as 460 ℃, has a lower temperature at its poles. For example, there is no water on the surface of Mars, but there is ice in the north pole of Mars.
The two poles of the earth have always been very cold places, covered by thick ice and snow. In addition to these ice and snow, there are permafrost layers in the north and south poles, especially in the Arctic, which is the largest permafrost layer in the world, that is, the Siberia that we often hear. I believe many people often hear some weather forecasts: Siberian cold air is coming, and the temperature in most parts of the country will drop.
Siberia is located in Russia, where the temperature has been very low for tens of millions of years. Every year when China has a large cooling climate, it is basically affected by the Siberian cold air. Siberia permafrost is a natural biological laboratory with a vast area.
Permafrost has existed for tens of millions of years. In such a long time, I don’t know how many kinds of life have been frozen. Siberia, in particular, is not a forbidden area for life. All kinds of creatures live in this cold place all the time. Therefore, Siberian permafrost is covered with countless kinds of ancient creatures.
I believe many people know that freezing is the best way to preserve biological remains. If properly preserved, even after tens of thousands or millions of years, biological remains can still exist without decomposition and disappearance or leaving only one fossil. Under normal circumstances, the permafrost in Siberia is frozen, so we can’t find the possible remains of ancient creatures.
However, with the rapid development of human industry, a large number of carbon dioxide emissions lead to the increasing greenhouse effect and global temperature. With the rising of global temperature, permafrost is melting, especially in recent years, the rate of permafrost melting in the Arctic is increasing. When the permafrost is constantly melting, some ancient biological remains that have been frozen for tens of thousands of years may appear in the permafrost.
Last June, scientists found a huge Wolf Skull in Siberia’s thawed frozen soil. Although it has been buried for 40000 years, it still keeps a roaring posture. Later, scientists found an animal buried for 14300 years in the melting permafrost. The discovery of this ancient animal excites scientists because it is well preserved.
A well preserved ancient biological remains is of great significance to scientific research. According to the appearance of this animal, scientists infer that it may be a canine, but it looks like a wolf, not a wolf, not a dog. Is it a wolf or a dog? At present, Russian scientists are not sure and need further study.
Whether from the discovery of wolf skulls or the discovery of relatively intact ancient animals, we can see that Siberia has been the world of wolves since ancient times. After scientists found a well preserved animal in the permafrost, they soon studied and analyzed the prehistoric animal corpse.
Although DNA reveals the genes in the organism, RNA can let us know which genes are more important and which ones don’t work, the researchers said. So RNA is a copy of biological genes, and it also plays a very important role in human beings.
Although animal DNA can survive for thousands of years under appropriate conditions, due to the existence of a chemical called “recycling enzyme” in animals, RNA in living tissues decomposes rapidly. Even after animals die, RNA continues to decompose. Therefore, the research team has been working hard to isolate RNA from whole cells. The team has analyzed RNA from the liver, cartilage and muscle of the prehistoric animal.
Some scientists believe that it may be a prehistoric human pet, a kind of hound domesticated by human ancestors. If so, it means that 14000 years ago, a group of human ancestors still lived here in Siberia, accompanied by hounds, which may have been domesticated and crossed by wolves and dogs. Thus, the wisdom of human ancestors is also extraordinary.
With the rising global temperature, the Arctic frozen soil is rapidly melting, which is good or bad for the earth’s ecological environment and human beings. The advantage is that we can find a lot of ancient biological bodies in the melting permafrost, which has a great role for human beings to study the ancient history.
And the disadvantage is the unknown kinds of ancient bacteria and viruses. Compared with the ancient animal carcasses, which can be seen directly, there are also more invisible microorganisms in the permafrost. They are ancient bacteria and viruses. I believe many people are familiar with the new virus which has spread very fast since this period of time. A new virus makes people dare not go out. All kinds of activities and many industries have stagnated.
Although there is no vaccine for this new virus, scientists are not unfamiliar with it, because it is a coronavirus. As long as we continue to study and conquer it, we believe that the threat will be relieved soon. But for the ancient virus, we are very strange. It may be completely different from the modern virus. Once the ancient virus has great harm to the existing organisms or human beings on the earth, it will be a huge human crisis.
Therefore, in the face of the continuous melting of permafrost, scientists do not feel very happy, but have all kinds of worries and fears. Some people may think that tens of thousands of years, millions of years later, even if the ancient virus is frozen, it has already died and will not pose a threat to us. In fact, it is not the case. Bacteria, viruses and other microorganisms are different from the DNA of complex organisms such as human beings.
The DNA of bacteria and other microorganisms has a relatively immortal characteristic. For example, some single celled organisms can live forever without accidents. The same is true of viruses. Without the interference of external forces, they will continue to multiply and live forever. Even if it has been frozen for tens of thousands of years, millions of years, once the temperature is right, it is possible to recover again and start a large number of reproduction.
It can be seen that the rising global temperature brought about by the rapid development of human industry is like opening a Pandora’s box, and the impact may be very large, far beyond our imagination. It will not only bring the rapid deterioration of the earth’s ecology, but also may bring devastating disasters to the earth’s life, even to human beings. Therefore, Hawking has repeatedly warned human beings: to leave the earth as soon as possible, maybe only when we really leave the earth can we avoid disasters and let human civilization continue.
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