This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
With the help of science and technology, we first saw a vast solar system. The solar system is the home of the earth and human beings. Through observation, we find that the diameter of the Milky way is more than 100000 light-years, while the solar system is just a tiny star system on the edge of the Milky way called the Orion spiral arm.
Compared with the Milky way, the solar system is very small, but compared with the whole observable universe, the solar system is even smaller than a grain of dust. So how did such a tiny solar system come into being? According to a large number of observations and studies by scientists, the solar system was born in the solar system Nebula 5 billion years ago.
Stellar systems in the universe are basically born from nebula, which is a mass structure formed by cosmic matter, in which there is a large amount of dense matter. The center of the nebula can’t condense and light up the star before it has a huge rotation, so the nebula has to find a way to move before it can evolve into a star. So where does the power of the solar nebula come from?
Scientists believe that the supernova explosion may have come from an old star near the solar nebula. We all know that stars have lifespan. The lifespan of stars with larger mass is often shorter. When their life comes to an end, supernova explosion will occur, which is the most powerful explosion in the universe.
The power of the supernova explosion is enough to cause turbulence in the nearby nebula, thus bringing power to the solar nebula. Under the impact of the supernova explosion, the solar nebula began to contract and rotate, a large number of objects began to condense toward the center, and the density and temperature of the center became higher and higher. Finally, Nirvana sublimated, and a new star was born, which was the sun.
After the birth of the sun, after continuous evolution and development, there was a stable solar system. The earth was born 4.6 billion years ago. After hundreds of millions of years of evolution, a stable ecosystem was formed, and early primitive life was born 4 billion years ago. After billions of years of evolution, primitive life gave birth to human beings hundreds of years ago.
Through the above analysis, we can see that the fate of the earth and human beings is closely related to the sun to some extent. The stability of the whole solar system is also very important for the earth, so can the earth and human beings survive forever in the solar system? It’s very difficult to estimate.
Through a lot of research, scientists predict that there will be three major events in the future solar system, which will have a huge impact on the earth and human beings.
1、 Five billion years later, the sun will become a red giant. The sun is a star, and the lifespan of stars varies according to their mass. According to the mass of the sun, its life span is about 10 billion years. Today, the sun has passed 5 billion years and is still in its prime.
Now the sun looks very mild, bringing the earth the right light and temperature, life on earth can also survive safely. But this stable living environment will be broken with the continuous expansion of the sun in 5 billion years.
The burning of the sun is actually nuclear fusion in the center. Nuclear fusion continuously loses mass by consuming hydrogen. About 4 million tons of material are converted into energy every second. The sun is equivalent to a celestial body made of hydrogen. With the continuous consumption of hydrogen rich elements and the continuous loss of mass, all hydrogen will be consumed in 5 billion years, and hydrogen fusion will stop at this time.
Without hydrogen, the stability of the sun will be greatly reduced. At this time, the sun’s shell will continue to expand outward, passing through mercury orbit, Venus orbit, and finally close to earth orbit. The expanding sun will devour mercury and Venus and approach the earth’s orbit. At this time, the sun we stand on the earth will be very big. Every day, we will see a huge sun many times larger than in the past rising from the East and hanging high in the sky, which will bring us great pressure.
When the sun’s orbit approached the earth, the real fear was the sharp rise of temperature. At that time, the earth was a purgatory planet, which was even higher than the temperature of Venus. In such a high temperature, the earth’s ecology will completely collapse, become a furnace, completely become a life can not survive on the planet.
With the continuous expansion of the sun, the earth is no longer suitable for human survival, but the position of Mars and Jupiter has become a livable zone. So, at that time, human beings will migrate to Mars, and Mars will become a new home for human beings. In addition to Mars, several of Jupiter’s moons will become a water rich planet due to the rising temperature, and will also become a new home for human beings.
2、 Venus and Mars may collide with the earth, and celestial collision events are very common in the universe. The early solar system was not as stable as it is now. At that time, shortly after the birth of the sun, the remaining matter in the nebula condensed to form hundreds of planets. So many planets had no stable orbits and ran around.
So hundreds of planets in order to compete for territory, began to have big collisions, and the earth is also not immune, with a Mars sized planet collided. The debris from the collision formed the early moon. Of course, the early Earth has not yet given birth to life, which is a lucky thing. If there is such a big collision after the formation of ecosystem and the birth of life, then life will come to an end.
With the continuous collision of hundreds of planets, most of them are smashed, and only eight are left in the end. With the continuous collision, the solar system is constantly stabilizing. It forms a stable equilibrium system with the sun as the center and the eight planets moving around it and restricting each other. This stable galaxy system has been running for more than 4 billion years. Will it continue to run steadily in the future? I’m afraid it’s also very difficult.
According to the research and exploration of scientists, because Mercury is very close to the sun, its orbit is the flattest in the solar system, and it will become more and more flat in the future. This increasingly flat orbit will make Mercury’s orbit very unstable. Once Mercury is out of its current orbit, it will break the existing eight planet stability system.
According to the scientist’s simulation, in 4 billion years, mercury may be out of its current orbit, either directly hitting the sun or Venus. If mercury hits the sun directly, it’s almost like tickling with the mass of the sun. On the contrary, it won’t have any obvious impact on the earth. But if mercury doesn’t hit the sun, but Venus, it will have a great impact on the earth.
We should know that Venus is a neighbor of the earth, very close to us, and its mass and volume are also very close to the earth. Once Mercury collides with Venus, the orbit of Venus will also change, and then the two planets will collide with the earth. Venus, which is similar to the earth, will collide with the earth, which will be a disaster of destroying the earth and the sky, and may collapse the whole earth and become the dust of the universe.
3、 3.7 billion years later, the Milky way and Andromeda Galaxy collided and merged. Andromeda galaxy is the neighbor of the Milky way, and the distance between them is about 2.54 million light years. The solar system revolves around the galactic center, while the Milky way also has its own orbit. The Milky way and Andromeda Galaxy revolve around a common center of mass. In the process of motion, the two galaxies will continue to approach, and finally collide and merge to become a larger galaxy.
According to scientists’ observations, the Milky way and Andromeda galaxy will collide and melt in about 3.7 billion years. Will the collision and fusion of two large galaxies affect the earth and human beings? Scientists believe that the collision and fusion of large galaxies is a very mild collision. Due to the great distance between stars, there is no need to worry about the obvious impact on the solar system and the earth.
Of course, it is still unknown whether there will be other changes in the current observation results in the future. It can be seen that before the end of the life of the sun, we still need to face a variety of possible cosmic disasters. Among these disasters, the earth is hard to escape. Even if it does not disappear, it will become a barren planet that cannot survive.
As human beings are intelligent life, with the help of powerful science and technology, our destiny may not be the same as that of the earth. Once human beings become an interstellar civilization, then the earth and solar system will not be able to bind and threaten us. At that time, the whole universe will be our home.
If the earth can’t survive, the solar system can’t survive, we can migrate to other galaxies, or even out of the Milky way. Therefore, science and technology is the greatest reliance for human beings to change their destiny. Only by striving to develop science and technology, can we not be affected by any possible disasters, so that human civilization will always exist in the universe.