This paper takes part in the series essay competition of “great science” of Recordunkown.
The solar system is home to the earth, and this galaxy has planets, asteroids and comets. Every star system has different number of planets, and the solar system is no exception. How many planets are there in the solar system?
I believe many friends will see the theory of nine planets in the solar system in the past books. Yes, there were nine planets in the solar system in the past. But now there are only eight planets in the solar system. Why? The reason is that Pluto has been put out of the planet list by scientists. So why is Pluto kicked out of the planet list? Is it because its mass is too small?
In fact, the reason why scientists kick Pluto out of the planet list is not because its mass is too small, mainly because scientists have redefined the planet. In the third of the new definition, it is required to be able to clear its orbit, that is to say, the planets should be dominant in the orbit. According to this standard, Pluto obviously does not meet the requirements, because its orbit is not clean and some celestial bodies still exist.
After Pluto was kicked out of the list of nine planets, the solar system became eight planets. For many old friends, this change is still hard for people to accept. We should know that the theory of nine planets has been extended by human beings for thousands of years, and nine is a very important number in human civilization. Therefore, many people still hope that one day, the solar system can return to the theory of nine planets.
So is it possible for such a wish to come true? If you want Pluto to be a planet again, don’t think about it, because with the continuous improvement of human’s understanding of the universe, Pluto obviously doesn’t meet the standard of planets. If Pluto can’t be a planet again, is there a ninth planet in the solar system?
I believe that in recent years, many friends have heard of the conjecture about the ninth planet put forward by scientists. Why do scientists have such a guess? In fact, it has something to do with some research findings of scientists in the solar system. In 2016, Constantine batikin and Mike Brown of California Institute of technology announced the discovery of a group of very distant extraneptune objects (TNOs), which gather together in a very strange way and have very similar orbits.
Their orbits are strangely skewed, as if they all gravitationally interact with a larger planetary body. But there are no known large planets in the region. So batikin and brown speculated that there might be an undiscovered planet there. So the search for planet 9 began.
It can be seen that the proposal of planet 9 is not a blind guess without any basis, but a judgment based on the abnormal orbit of some celestial bodies found on the edge of the solar system. As we all know, there is gravity between celestial bodies in the universe. The larger the mass of celestial bodies, the stronger their gravity will be, which will have a more obvious impact on the surrounding celestial bodies.
According to scientists’ guess, the ninth planet on the edge of the solar system, if it exists, has a mass 5-10 times that of the earth. Such a planet can be regarded as a super earth. If such a huge planet exists at the edge of the solar system, its gravity will inevitably have a significant gravitational impact on many surrounding celestial bodies.
Of course, it’s not easy to find planet 9. The edge of the solar system is a blind spot for human exploration, where the light is very dark. Even so, scientists believe that if such a huge planet exists, it should emit infrared radiation, which is the energy that has been leaking out since the formation of the planet. As long as the planet has infrared radiation, the writers should find something with the help of infrared detection.
But until now, scientists have found little direct evidence of its existence except for the gravitational effect in the outer solar system. Doesn’t planet nine exist? But if it doesn’t exist, how can the abnormal orbit of celestial bodies detected by scientists at the edge of the solar system be explained? Since the orbit anomalies of these very distant objects outside Neptune indicate that there must be a huge gravitational source here.
If this huge gravitational source is not a planet, what would it be? At this time, some scientists thought of black holes. On September 24, 2019, astronomer Jakub Scholtz of Durham University and James enwin of the University of Illinois in Chicago published a new study, describing another hypothesis they put forward for the strange attraction phenomenon in the outermost layer of the solar system. They believe that these strange phenomena may not be caused by a planet at all, but may be a primary black hole. After the theory was published, it caused some controversy.
The so-called primary black hole is actually a small mass black hole formed immediately after the big bang. The density fluctuation in the early universe can quickly form black holes of different mass. These ancient celestial bodies move around the universe. As time goes by, they will slowly evaporate through Hawking radiation, and the smaller black holes will disappear first.
Although there are many theories about the evolution of the universe that primary black holes should exist, we have not directly observed them. Such black holes are too small to pose a threat to the rest of the solar system. But in the far reaches of the solar system, the impact is enormous.
Black holes are completely different from other celestial bodies. We all know that black holes have powerful phagocytic power, and even light can’t escape from them. If it is a planet, it can emit infrared radiation, and we may find it by optical observation and infrared observation. But if this is a black hole, our optical observation and infrared observation methods are useless, it is a completely hidden existence.
Moreover, the mass of the original black hole is relatively small, there will be no bright accretion disk around it, so even if it is in front of us, we can’t see it. Is there no way for us to detect this possible primary black hole? Of course not. If the black hole is outside the solar system and is far away from us, we will have no way.
We can observe some black holes outside the solar system, mainly because those supermassive black holes have very bright accretion disks, which can emit all kinds of strong radiation. When we observe these strong energy radiation, we can know that there is a supermassive black hole, such as the center of the galaxy.
But now this small black hole is at the edge of the solar system, not too far away from us, so as long as we carefully search, we may still hope to find it. However, infrared and optical observations are impossible to find the existence of this small black hole. We can use the moving X-ray, gamma ray and other high-energy cosmic ray sources to carry out detailed search.
Although the black hole has a strong phagocytic ability, even light will not let go, but the black hole is not a swallow not spit celestial body, according to Hawking radiation theory, it will still release some energy, but these energy need more powerful detection equipment to be possible, and also must be very close to us.
No matter whether there is No. 9 planet on the edge of the solar system, some celestial orbit anomalies tell us that there is probably a huge gravitational source here. Even if it is not a planet, it may be a black hole or other unknown existence. For the current human science and technology, we can only detect this huge gravitational object at the edge of the solar system through astronomical telescope and other observation equipment.
Some people may say that we can send spacecraft to the solar system for detailed observation. If there is a ninth planet there, isn’t it easier to find it? In fact, it is not advisable to use this method with the current scientific and technological strength of human beings. You know, if planet 9 really existed, it would have an orbital period of 10000 to 20000 years.
Moreover, the universe is a three-dimensional space. If we do not have certain coordinate information, it may be many times more difficult for the spacecraft to go to the edge of the solar system to encounter the ninth planet than to look for a needle in a haystack. In fact, one of the more important reasons why scientists do not send spacecraft to the edge of the solar system to search for planet 9 is that the speed of the spacecraft is too slow.
If we now have the ability to fly at sub light speed, and it takes only a few hours for the spacecraft to go from the earth to the edge of the solar system, then the search for planet 9 will be very simple. We can use the spacecraft to carry out a carpet search on the edge of the solar system. If planet 9 really exists, it will not be able to escape the search of the spacecraft. Even if it is an invisible primary black hole, once the spacecraft inadvertently approaches, its strong gravity will have a very obvious impact on the spacecraft. At that time, we will naturally know where it is.
It can be seen that we are now entangled in whether it is a planet or a primary black hole. The main reason is that human science and technology are limited, and there is no more powerful detection means to really search for the edge of the solar system. Of course, as long as we continue to work hard, we believe that in the near future, this mysterious gravitational source on the edge of the solar system will be exposed, and whether it is a planet or a black hole will be revealed.
Guys, what do you think of this? Welcome to leave a message below to discuss and express your opinions.