We must have heard a lot about the destruction of the earth and the extinction of living things. Whether it’s wishful thinking or scientific basis, with the rapid development of science, we sigh that “everything is possible.”. This article will introduce four kinds of terrible destruction methods, which are based on the existing technical level, not the fantasy.
1. Engulfed by black holes
At CERN, the earth may be in danger of being swallowed up by black holes. A black hole is defined as a mass concentration large enough that gravity prevents anything from escaping from it, even light.
When a star dies, its core collapses, forming a neutron star or black hole. If this black hole is created in or near our solar system, the sun and all planets will be torn apart and devoured.
2. Super volcano eruption
Campi fregli is a super volcano in the bay of Naples. The volcano, whose name means “burning fields”, consists of a huge network of underground caves filled with magma, most of which are located on the sea floor. Campi freglie volcano has not erupted for more than 500 years, but this situation seems to change soon. In December 2016, volcanologists warned that the volcano could reach a “critical degassing pressure” that could lead to an eruption.
It’s terrifying. About 39000 years ago, the volcano spewed 300 cubic kilometers of lava to a height of 70 kilometers, releasing 450000 tons of sulfur dioxide. The ash even falls 2000 kilometers away. The emission of sulfur dioxide caused a sudden drop in global temperature. The surface of the earth was covered with 20 cm thick ashes, which blocked the heat from the sun and led to the extinction of many organisms.
Campy freglie is not the only remaining super volcano. DOPA Lake in Indonesia, Yellowstone Park in the United States and Taupo volcano in New Zealand are all the sites of super volcanoes. Experts are trying to predict when these volcanoes will erupt. Geologists have carefully studied the Huangshi super volcano. They think that the average interval between eruptions of this volcano is 740000 years, which is close to the deadline of the last 740000 years. This is the closest and most likely event to us.
3. Methane gas explosion
Methane is a combustible gas. As we all know, it is easy to cause explosion if there is a kind of microorganism that can emit methane?
It is speculated that this disaster occurred 252 million years ago. 90% of marine life and 70% of land life perished in this methane explosion. The researchers believe that there is a methane producing microorganism, methanogen, which grows indefinitely in the ocean, causing climate warming, ocean acidification and extinction. The microbe thrives on minerals produced by a massive volcanic eruption in Siberia, increasing the concentration of nickel needed for growth.
So how likely is another methane explosion to destroy life on earth? The Arctic is considered a “time bomb” for methane. Methane is said to be trapped in permafrost in the form of methane hydrate and methane inclusion complex. If too much ice melts, it could lead to an end of the world mass extinction
4. Vacuum decay
The whole universe is in a vacuum. Our vacuum collides with the vacuum of other universes. However, some vacuums are not real vacuums. If the vacuum of the universe is a false vacuum, it may be unstable, or “metastable.”. If our universe is in a false vacuum, then any high-energy event, such as an exploding star, will cause a part of our universe to collide with the real vacuum of the neighboring universe, which will be swallowed by another real vacuum universe at superluminal speed.
Not only that, if a universe is in a false vacuum, then the universe may be “dug through” by a tiny particle. This particle will break the barrier between one vacuum and another, which will also make the universe in the false vacuum be sucked into another vacuum.