There are eight planets in the solar system, and the earth is the only planet with intelligent life. If you want to ask which planet in the solar system is most similar to earth, maybe many people will answer Mars. In fact, it is not. Among the eight planets in the solar system, Venus is the most similar to the earth.
Venus is the neighbor of the earth and the second closest planet to the sun. According to the standard of habitable zone, Venus, earth and Mars are all planets in the habitable zone, and Venus is the closest planet to the earth. Ancient Romans called Venus, ancient Chinese called Changgeng, Qiming, Taibai or Taibai Venus, ancient Greek mythology called Aphrodite. The revolution period is 224.71 Earth days.
Venus is an earth like planet, because its mass is similar to that of the earth, and it is sometimes called the “Sister star” of the earth. From the perspective of structure, Venus has many similarities with the earth. The radius of Venus is about 6073 km, which is only 300 km smaller than the radius of the earth. Its volume is 0.88 times of that of the earth, and its mass is 4 / 5 of that of the earth. Its average density is slightly less than that of the earth.
From a structural point of view, it is not too much for Venus to be called the sister planet of the earth. Although Venus is very similar to the earth in structure, their environment is very different. The earth is a warm blue planet and also a planet of life. Venus is a purgatory planet with a surface temperature of 500 degrees Celsius.
In our mind, Venus is an apocalyptic scene of purgatory. However, a new study by scientists recently shows that Venus may have a perfect livable environment in about 2-3 billion years, and life may have enough time to live here. However, the drastic climate change 700 million years ago made the atmosphere of Venus extremely dense and hot, and also made it from a cold climate The livable planet has become a barren purgatory.
Scientists speculate that Venus or a habitable planet 700 million years ago. If so, why did it become so? In 1978, NASA’s “pioneer” Venus probe found evidence that the planet’s surface may have had shallow water. Several subsequent studies investigated its surface and atmosphere, revealing new details of its transformation from an “earth like planet” to a “hell.”.
In the new study, NASA researchers performed five simulations showing different levels of water cover. According to the statement of the European planetary Association, all five simulations show that the temperature on Venus has been between 20 ℃ and 50 ℃ for about 3 billion years. This is a very suitable temperature, which is even better than the temperature of the earth.
Venus had the right temperature 700 million years ago, so there might be a lot of liquid water. The origin of liquid water on the surface of Venus is similar to that of the earth. Because the planets in the habitable zone are close to the sun, the surrounding space environment can not form water. Therefore, the liquid water of Venus and earth is brought by comets at the edge of the solar system or outside the solar system.
About 4 billion years ago, when the solar system was just formed, it was still very unstable. At that time, a large number of comets came from the edge of the solar system to the inner galaxies. They hit Mars, earth and Venus, bringing a lot of water resources to the three planets. Although there is no liquid water on the surface of Mars, scientists have found a large number of ancient river beds on the surface of Mars through the probe, which shows that there was a large amount of liquid water on Mars a long time ago.
In the same way, there should have been a lot of liquid water on the surface of Venus long ago. Unfortunately, because Venus has a thick atmosphere and acid rain layer, and the surface temperature is too high, it is difficult for the orbital probe to really see its surface clearly, and it is difficult for the probe to successfully land on Venus. Even if the landing is successful, it can only survive for a very short time. Therefore, we can not really understand the surface of Venus now. It is possible that there are a lot of ancient river beds on the surface of Venus, which is evidence that it once had water.
Venus may have formed a little earlier than the earth. From about 4.2 billion years ago, Venus experienced a period of rapid cooling. As Venus evolves, silicate rocks slowly absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and lock it in Venus’ crust. At this time, Venus had the climate of money management. It had a thick atmosphere, and comets brought a lot of liquid water resources.
Such a Venus fully supports the existence of life, so scientists speculate that Venus might have been a beautiful planet of life like the earth 700 million years ago. But then a huge environmental change changed all this, so what kind of major events can completely change the environment of Venus? Scientists speculated that it might be violent volcanic activity.
Venus is a rocky planet, and naturally there are many volcanoes. Seven hundred million years ago, Venus erupted in global volcanic activities. As magma and molten rocks poured into the surface of Venus, a large amount of carbon dioxide was released into the atmosphere. If the magma solidifies before it reaches the surface, it forms a barrier that prevents the gas from being reabsorbed.
As we all know, carbon dioxide is the main greenhouse gas. A large amount of carbon dioxide is released from the interior of Venus with volcanic activities, which completely changes the composition of Venus’ atmosphere. We now detect that 95% of the composition of Venus’ atmosphere is carbon dioxide, which has become the main gas of Venus, causing a serious greenhouse effect, increasing the temperature of Venus’ surface. The high temperature makes the liquid water on the surface evaporate, causing the extinction of life.
If Venus became the purgatory planet because of volcanic activity, then the future of the earth is also worrying. Like Venus, the earth is a planet with many volcanoes. The Siberian trap is one of the largest known volcanic activities in the past 500 million years. This event released a large number of toxic greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, leading to mass extinction of species.
In recent years, there have been several obvious volcanic eruptions on the earth. If those large dead volcanoes on the earth are reactivated and erupted in the future, will there be great environmental changes like Venus 700 million years ago, which will lead to the extinction of life. It can be seen that Venus is the goal of future research and exploration. Only by truly understanding the history and evolution of Venus, can we prevent the earth from repeating the tragedy of Venus in the future.
Maybe some people don’t understand that since Venus is so important to the earth, why don’t we send more probes? In fact, the main reason I mentioned earlier is that Venus has a thick atmosphere and high temperature environment on its surface, so it is difficult for the probe to land, and the orbital probe can not see the surface of Venus through the thick atmosphere. So it’s not much use sending more detectors.
Only when human science and technology go further, can we have more advanced probes and land directly on the surface of Venus like landing on Mars, then the real situation of the surface of Venus will be displayed in front of us. Some scientists even believe that although the current Venus environment is very bad, there may still be Venus life that is suitable for this high temperature environment. And there’s one more secret to Venus that scientists don’t understand, which is that Venus doesn’t have a magnetic field.
In principle, the structure of Venus is so similar to that of the earth. Scientists believe that there should be an iron core in the core of Venus no less than that of the earth’s core. If so, Venus should have a magnetic field. However, Venus is the only planet in the solar system that has no magnetic field. Whether Venus’s magnetic field has never existed or disappeared for some reasons remains to be explored and studied by scientists in the future.
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